Definition, Importance and Scope of Fruits and Plantation Crops
Pomology: – The word Pomology is made up of the Latin language word ‘Pomum’ meaning ‘fruits’ and Greek language word ‘logy’ meaning ‘science’ and thus the science of fruit production is called Pomology.
Importance and Scope: –
During 2017-18, the production of horticulture crops was 311.71 Million Tonnes from an area of 25.43Million Hectares. The production of fruits has increased from 50.9 Million Tonnes to 97.35 Million Tonnes since2004-05 to 2017-18.
Figure 1 (Production in MT)
Figure 2 (Share in percentage)
Table:- Area, Production and Productivity of Horticultural Crops
Flowers, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops
- India is the second largest country in fruit production in the world and China ranks first in production.
- India ranks first in mango, banana, coconut, cashew nuts, papaya and pomegranate production and the productivity of some fruits is also very high like papaya, banana etc.
- It is estimated that per capita fruits availability in our country is 207.9 gms. per day which is far below the recommended quantity of 230 gms. per capita per day
- Plantation crops are another potential sector with lot of opportunities of employment generation, foreign exchange earning and overall supporting livelihood sustenance of mankind at large.
The importance of fruits and plantation crops is as follows
1. Income generation: – More money can be earned by selling fruits, and plantation crops as they have a higher yield per hectare.
2. Employment Generation: – Horticulture crops require workers throughout the year, from growing crops to harvesting and in processing, so garden crops create more jobs.
3. Industrial development: –Horticultural crops mangoes, grapes and plantation crops give raw materials to factories. These factories make products from them and sell them in the market.
4. Religious and sacred value:- The leaves, flowers, fruits, etc. of the tree are of religious importance and are used in rituals, rites, and ceremonies. Coconut is used in worship. Bael leaves are offered to Lord Shiva.
5. Food value:- Some fruits like cashew, almond, and walnut are rich in fat and protein, and in many areas, potatoes and bananas are used as staple foods which can meet all the needs of the body.
6. Nutritional value: – Fruits and vegetables are rich in nutrients so the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has recommended 120 grams of fruits to be eaten by each person every day. The nutrient fruit is as follows:
Mango (4800 IU/100gm)> Papaya (2020 IU/100g)
Vitamin B (Thiamine)
Cashew nut (630mg/100gm) > Walnut (450mg/100gm) > Apricot (dry) (217mg/100)
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Beal(1191mg/100gm) > Papaya (250mg /100gm) > Litchi (122.5mg /100gm)
Barbados cherry (1000-4000mg /100gm) >Aonla (600mg/100gm) > Guava (299mg / 100gm)
Apricot (dry) (72.81%) > Date (Pind) (67.30%) > Karonda (dry) (67.10%)
Cashew nut (21.20%) > Almond (20.80%) > Walnut (15.60%)
Walnut – (64.50%) > Almond (58.90%) >Cashewnut (46.90%)
Guava (6.90%) >Kaintha (5.20%) > Pomegranate (5.10%) >Aonla (3.40%)
Litchi (0.21%) > Karonda (dry) (0.16%) >Kaintha (0.13%)
Cashewnut (0.45%) > Walnut (0.38%) > Litchi – (0.30%)
Karonda (dry) (39.1%) > Date (pind) (10.6%) >Cahewnut (5.0%)
7. Aesthetic value: – Many kings considered the trees as symbols of being young and planted them in the palace. Mughal emperors have given great importance to fruit trees and flowers in the styles of their gardens. They considered the cypress plant a symbol of death and planted it around the tombs. In the cities, fruit trees are planted on both sides of the road called avenue planting.
8. Export Value: – Indian products are in great demand abroad mango, grapes etc. are exported from India. Exporting these products gives foreign exchange to the country.