Fruit Science

Grapes Cultivation

B.N.Vitis vinifera

Family – Vitaceae

Origin – Armenia (Black to Caspian Sea in USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics))

Ch. No. – 2n = 38

Fruit type – Berry

Inflorescence – Panicle (Cymose)

Edible part – pericarps, placentae

Important Point

  • Viti culture– the cultivation of grapes.
  • Grapes are non-climacteric
  • Muscat flavor – Methyl anthranilate.
  • V. rotundifolia – Monoecious (Cross pollinated)
  • Most grape varieties are self-pollinated (Cleistogamy).
  • The Calyptra is a cap-like structure present in the grape that is formed as a result of the union of sepals and petals.
  • There are pistillate varieties (cross-pollinated) such as Hur, Bangul Abyad, Katte Kurgh
  • The flowers of grapes are produced in clusters. They are perfect, pistillate or staminate.
  • Perlette, Beauty Seedless, Pusa Seedless, Delight, and T.S. In which fertilization takes place but after some time the embryo is aborted, this condition is known as stenospermocarpy.
  • Stimulative parthenocarpy (pollination provides stimulation to the berry set) is present in the Black Corianth variety.
  • Grapes are said to have been introduce from Iran and Afghanistan in 1300 AD.
  • Maximum area and production – MH.
  • The largest product in the world is-
  • The average productivity of grapes in India (16.92 t/ha) is the highest in the world.
  • October is the ideal time for planting.
  • Flower bud differentiation occurs in March-April.
  • The skin of the grape berry is covered with a wax-like layer called cutin.
  • Pruning
    • North India – Once – winter season (Dec. – January).
    • South India – Twice – (1) April (Back or foundation pruning) (2) October (Fruit or forward pruning)
  • Pruning intensity lowest (Spur pruned) (3-4 bud) in Bangalore Blue, Bokhri, Banglore Blue, Beauty Seedless, Delight, and Perlette.
  • Pruning intensity highest (cane pruned) (10-14 buds) in Thompson Seedless, Gulabi, Pusa Seedless, and Kishmis Chorini.
  • The Bower system of training is mostly adopted in India.
  • The highest average bunch weight + berry weight is obtained from the Bower system of training.
  • For a Thompson Seedless, a distance of 1.8 x 2.5m2 is ideal for a Bower system.
  • For Thompson Seedless, a distance of 1.8 x 3.0m2 is ideal for a “Y” trellis system.
  • Stem girdling – Removal of ring-shaped bark up to 5 mm wide at the stage of full bloom.
  • Growth Regulator
    • CCC – For suppressing vigour of the vine & increase fruit-fullness of bud.
    • GA3 – For increasing berry size.
    • HCN – To hasten bud break at winter pruning.
    • NAA (50ppm) – To reduce post-harvest fruit drop.
    • MH – For induction of male sterility.
  • Rains during ripening cause berry cracking and rotting.
  • Fe deficiency in 55% area is very common in black soil.
  • Pink berry formation is a common problem in Thompson seedless and its clone.
  • Pink pigmentation develops in green grapes if the diurnal differences are more than 200C during ripening.
  • Shot berries– Perlette – Cause – B deficiency – Poor pollination.
  • Raisins are the only processed product in India.
  • Dipping berries in soda oil containing ethyl oleate + K2CO3 and shade drying is the most common method of preparing Raisins in India.
  • Raisin–dried seedless grapes, should not have more than 17% moisture. Pusa Seedless, T.S, Sultana.
  • Grape ground – Craft paper coated with KMS and plastic polymer.
  • Delight and Perlette varieties were evolved by H.D. Olmo.


  • Dogridge – Resistant to Nematode, Salt, Phylloxera.
  • 1613 – Resistant to Nematode, Phylloxera.
  • Salt Creek – Resistant to Nematode, Salt.
  • Temple – Resistant to Pierce’s disease.


There are about 8000 known varieties of grapes in the world.

  • Thompson Seedless- It occupies 55% area with its clone. TSS 22- 24%, Juice – 69%.
  • Coloured Seeded – Bangalore Blue, Gulabi (Muscat), Kishmish Chorni.
  • Coloured Seedless – Beauty Seedless, Sharad Seedless.
  • White Seeded – Anab-a-Shahi, Dilkhush.
  • White Seedless – Perlette, Pusa Seedless, Tas-A-Ganesh, Sonnaka, Monik Chaman.
  • Late matureing – Arka Kanchan
  • Other- Kishmish, Black Prince, Delight, Foster Seedless, Champian, Black Hamburg etc.


Clone of Thomson Seedless

  • Pusa Seedless
  • Tash-A-Ganesh
  • Manik Chaman
  • Sonnaka

Dil Khush – Clone of Anab-A-Sahebi

Rao Sahebi – Clone of Cheema Sahebi

Cheema Sahebi- clone of Pandari-Sahebi

Sharad seedless – clone of  Kishmis Chorni


  • Arkavati – Black Champa X TS, good for raisin
  • Arka Neelmani – Black Champa X TS, good for Red wine
  • Arka Hans – Banglore Blue X Anab -A-Shahi, good for white wine
  • Arka Trishna – Banglore Blue X Convent Large Black, Good for wine
  • Arka Krishna – Black Champa X Queen of Vineyard, good for Juice
  • Arka Shyam – Banglore Blue X Black Champa, good for double cropping
  • Arka Shweta – Anab – A- Shahi X TS
  • Arka Majestic – Anab -A- Shahi X Black Champa
  • Arka Chitrah – Angoor Kalan X Anab – A – Shahi
  • Pusa Navrang – Madeline Angavine X Ruby Red
  • Pusa Urvashi – Hur X Beauty Seedless,  tolerant to Anthracnose


  • Grapes are subtropical fruit.
  • Frost is harmful during its growth stage.
  • High humidity at maturity lowers the sugar level and on the other hand, high temperature causes the grape skin to become thick.
  • Viticulture is very successful in southern and some parts of India and here two crops are taken in a year.


  • porous, loose and well-drained, and deep
  • Sandy and heavy clay soils are not suitable


  • Grapes are mainly propagated by hard woody cuttings.
  • At the time of pruning when the vines are dormant, the cutting is prepared from one-year-old wood (cane).


  • Pits of size 75 to 100 cm3 are dug.
  • Planting distance is kept 3X3, 4X3, 5X3, and 6X3 meters. Depending on the variety, climatic conditions, soil type, and training system.
  • Planting is done from January to July.
  • Immediately after planting, support the plants by placing bamboo sticks (1.5 to 2.0 m long) near the base of each plant.

Manure and fertilizers

  • Application of fertilizers and manures is done to the soil after pruning. The depth of application is 15-20cm and 45-60cm away from the base of the trunk depending on the age of vine.
    • NPK – 46:32:250gm / vine 1st year 100kg FYM
    • 460:480:500gm / vine 2nd year 200kg FYM
    • 750:640:1000gm / vine after 3rd year 300kg FYM.
  • After mid-February, when atmospheric temperature start raising the rest period is broken and bud burst start.
  • This followed by the application of manure + a whole dose of phosphorus, potassium + ½ dose of nitrogen is done.
  • And remaining half dose is given after 21 days of the first.


  • The grapevine should be irrigated after pruning and fertilization.
  • It is very essential to irrigate the grapevine at an interval of 5-7 days until the berries attain pea size and thereafter irrigation is given at 10 days intervals till maturity.
  • Stop irrigation before 25-30 days of harvesting.


  • The vineyard is kept free from weeds and shallow mulching is done after every three irrigations.
  • Mulching should be done with a 10 cm thick layer of paddy husk or paddy straw.
  • Simazine and diuron 2 to 3 kg/ha. can be used as a pre-emergence weed.


Parts of the vine

  • Sprout – New growth of the current season.
  • Cane – the ripe shoot (branch) of the previous season
  • Lateral – the lateral branch of a twig or cane.
  • Spur – the base portion of the cane left after pruning
  • Fruit Spur – Spur prepared to produce fruit.
  • Trunk – the main stem of the plant.
  • A single shoot is allowed to grow with support, other branches are removed. It turns the vine into a permanent single trunk. The shoot is tied loosely to the support with a piece of jute twine.
  • For more suitable cultivars, fruitful shoots emerge from the buds near the base of the cane.
  • Due to low yield, this system is less recommended.
  1. Kniffen system
  • This system was developed in 1850 by Mr. William Kniffen of New York.
  • In this system, two wires are tied to the vertical pole. The lower wire is placed one meter above the ground and the single stem vine is allowed to grow on the lower wire forming two arms on either side of the trunk/stem and on the upper wire. Pruning a Kniffen vine consists of cutting the canes to 6-8 buds. The bearing shoots are allowed to hang freely, no tying is required. The main trunk is to be tied to each wire and the cans are tied parallel to the wires.
  • Suitable varieties like Thompson Seedless, Bhokari, Perllet, and Beauty Seedless.
  1. Arbour or Pergola System or Brower System
  • In this system, the grapevines are allowed to grow above the ground on a wire mesh roof at a height of 2 to 2.5 m. The entire meshwork is supported by strong pillars made of brick, concrete, or GI. The vine is allowed to grow as a single shoot. All lateral branches are removed. Pinching is done as soon as the main shoot reaches the bower so that strong lateral branches can be formed.
  • Later, the two stronger branches are allowed to develop into the cordon; All others are removed. Secondary branches/secondary arms are allowed to develop at a distance of 50-60 cm from the cordon. On the secondary arms, branches (tertiary) are allowed to develop at regular locations (15–20 cm apart). Tertiary shoots are pruned from 2 to 3 buds in the next season. New shoots arising from those spurs will provide fruiting and fresh spurs for the next year.
  • For heavy varieties like ‘Anab-e-Shahi’ and ‘Bhokari’ the arbor system of training is best suited.
  1. Overhead trellis or Telephone system
  • This system is very popular in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan.
  • This system was first introduced by Prof. N. Gopal Krishnan at the Natural Cure Centre at Urulikanchan, Puna.
  • The vine is allowed to grow directly to a height of about 1.6 m and then a canopy of 3-5 wires fixed to the cross arms, usually 1.4 m long, is mounted on an upward vertical pole which is usually connected to three parallel wires of 10 gauge. The cotter is fastened horizontally by means of pins and eye bolts.
  • If desired, four or five wires can be used. This system is suitable in hot areas.


This involves removing canes, branches, leaves and other additional vegetative parts of the vine. Sorting has three purposes-

  • To provide the desired structure of the vineyard which will facilitate easy carrying out of agricultural operations which will increase the productivity.
  • Controlling the amount of wood in the vine.
  • Stimulate flowering and provide suitable space for flowering and fruiting of grape vine.

Pruning Time

  • Pruning is completed by mid-January in North India.
  • Usually during winter, when the vine is dormant.
  • In South India, pruning is done twice a year i.e. in April and September-October.

Improvement of Berry Quality in Grape

  1. Application of micronutrient
  • Foliar sprays of boron a week before flowering and again in full bloom in Thompson Seedless and Bhokri vines promote the synthesis of protein and RNA in leaves and increase sugars in grape berries.
  1. Thinning
  • In a thinning operation, part of the vine is removed before flowering or after fruit sets, such as the entire flower bunch or part of the bunch. Thinning operation increases the size and quality of fruit berries. Thinning can be done easily by applying GA3 at 50 to 75 ppm.

3. Girdling

  • This is done by removing the bark in the form of a ring of 3-6 mm from the stem and branches. It increases fruit set, increases berry size and makes berry mature early, not recommended for quality improvement.
  1. Pinching
  • This is done by removing the tender shoot-tip (3-4 cm) of the branch.
  1. Toppings
  • This is done by removing 10 – 12 cm more of the shoot tip or terminal part.

6. Growth regulator

  • Grape berries grow in three stages. The first and third phases are fast and the second is very slow, which is called the ‘leg phase’.
  • This is due to the presence of high levels of endogenous growth inhibitors in the ‘leg phase’
  • Treatment of berry bunches with 250 and 500 ppm Ethereal during the ‘leg phase’ increases berry size, improves quality, and accelerates ripening.


Being a non-climacteric fruit, grapes are harvested only after they are fully ripe on the vine. The following are some of the signs that indicate the ripeness of many grape berries.

  • Formation of a waxy layer on the skin of the berry.
  • The berries become soft.
  • There is a change in the color of the berry and the stems of the clusters turn brown.
  • The berries are easily detached from the stem by pulling.
  • The seeds are easily separated from the pulp and the seeds become brown in colour.
  • Most berries are sweet in taste.
  • Berry juice becomes thick and has a TSS of 18 to 200 Brix


6-10 t / ha.


  1. Thrips – (Scirtothrips dorsalis & Rhipiphorothrips cruentalus)

They suck the sap from the leaves and white spots appear on the affected leaves, twist and the flowers turn yellow. Flowering but reduces the fruit set.


  • Spray on Malathion 0.1% or Fenthion 0.1%
  1. Flea Beetle (Scelodonta strigicollis)

The larva feeds on bursting buds and younger leaves, piercing the leaf margins to give them the appearance of shot holes. Active during March to November.


  • Remove loose bark during pruning.
  • After pruning, spray Parathion at 0.25%.
  1. Mealy bug (Ferrisiana virgata)

Sucks the sap from tender plant parts, releasing a honey-like sticky liquid.


  • Spray Malathion 0.1% or Parathion 0.1%
  1. Vine girdling beetle (Stehenias grisator)

Beetles that have heavy-biting mandibles. Activates at night. It cuts off the arms and main stem of the grape, resulting in the death of the vine.


  • Apply Chlordane 5% in the soil at the rate of 20-25 kg/ha.
  1. Birds


  • Cover the vines with nylon netting.
  • Make a loud sound by playing the tin/drum
  • Hang dead birds in one or two vines.
  • Use cracker


  1. Powdery mildew (Uncinula necator)

Small white spots form on the leaves and spread over the entire leaves. Sometimes even on both sides of the leaves. The leaves turn grayish-white and fall off. Affected berries fail to mature and may burst.


  • Fine sulfur dust @ 10-15 kg/ha on the leaves. Insert. Avoid dusting wet leaves.
  1. Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola)
  • Light yellow spots appear on the upper surface of the leaf. Later a white frosty mold develops on the underside of the leaves. The spots coalesce and eventually the leaves dry up.
  • Cool and moist weather and shady conditions are favorable for the growth of the fungus.


  • Remove all affected leaves, berries and destroy them.
  • Immediately after pruning spray with Bordeaux mixture 4:4:50.
  • Spray Zineb or Captan @ 0.5%
  1. Anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina)

All parts of the vine are affected. Black spots appear on the shoots and they become like sunken cankers. As cankers join together, the bark of the stem is girdled and the stems are weakened or die. On the foliage, the spots are gray with a dark or purple border.

Slightly sunken brown spots, sometimes as bird’s eye spots with gray centers. Later, the affected berries dry up and become wrinkled. Monsoon and temperature are very favorable for this disease.


  • Remove all affected parts.
  • After pruning spray Bordeaux mixture 4:4:50

Physiological disorder

Shot berry

  • These are underdeveloped and undesirable berries in clusters.
  • This problem is seen in some grape varieties like Perllet.


  • Formation of a large number of clusters on the vine.
  • Higher crop load.
  • Improper pruning.


  • At the stage of the fruit set, dip the bunches in a solution of Ethephon 25ppm+ Seven 2000ppm containing Tween-20 as a sticker for one minute.