Other Name: – Whole Some Fruit, Cantaloupe
Botanical Name: Cucumis melo
Chromosome Number: 2n=24
Origin: Tropical Africa
- The high temperature at the time of maturity increases sweetness.
- Full slip stage ideal for harvesting.
- Hara Madhu variety harvested at the Netting stage.
- TSS in most varieties is 11-17%.
- In Western Countries, Muskmelon is used to prepare ice cream.
- Anthesis time 5:30 -6:30 AM at 22-29° C temperature.
- Muskmelon is a climacteric vegetable.
- The respiration rate of muskmelon is very high.
- Pickling Melon – melo var. conomon
- Mango or Lemon Melon – melo var. chito
- Suitable crop for Daria Cultivation in India (about 75-80% area under Daria cultivation).
Area and production
It is grown in garden lands and river beds in India.
Area (000’ hac)
Production (000’ MT)
Area (000’ hac)
Source :- NHB 2018
- The fruits contain 95gm water, 0.3gm protein, 0.4gm minerals, and 3.5 gm CHO per 100g fresh weight. It is also a rich source of iron (1.4mg).
- Mature ripe fruit is used as a dessert fruit and as a salad.
1. Selection: –
2. Hybrids: –
Pusa Shabati: -Kutana X Cantaloupes (early Variety)
Punjab Sunheri: – Hara Madhu X Edisto
MHY-5: – Durgapura Madhu X Hara Madhu
Punjab Rasila:- PM and DM resistant Variety
Hissar Madhur:- Pusa Sharvati X 75
Pusa Rasraj:- developed using monoecious sex form as the female parent.
3. Other Varieties: –
Gujarat Kharbuja (Chaman- 262)
Narendra Kharbuja -1
Generally, a long period of warm, preferably dry weather with abundant sunshine is required for the development of flavour and high sugar content. It cannot withstand frost. Melons require a tropical climate and fairly high temperature of 35-40°C during fruit development.
Muskmelon is cultivated in all types of soils but grown successfully in sandy or sandy loam soil. Muskmelon prefers a soil pH of 6 – 6.7.
Muskmelon is generally cultivated as summer crops and is sown from November to March. And in South India or West Bengal, it is sown from November to December.
Preparation of field
Land should be thoroughly prepared to get fine tilth for a seed bed.
The recommended seed rate for Muskmelon is 3.5 to 6 kg/ha.
Plant spacing and sowing methods are different according to cultivar and region. The seeds may be sown in furrows or raised beds on both sides. The seeds are sown 2.5 to 5.0 cm deep in beds at 1.5 to 4 m row-to-row spacing and 60 to 75 cm plant-to-plant spacing. In every pit, 3-4 seeds are sown. After germination 2 to 3 weeks plants are removed and only one is left in every pit.
The fertilizer doses are given to crops according to the soil test. In soils having a medium fertility add 200 quantal FYM or Compost, 80 Kg Nitrogen, 50 kg phosphorus, and 50 Kg Potassium.
All fertilizers and half of the nitrogen are given at the last ploughing and the remaining Nitrogen is given at the flowering stage as a top dressing.
Musk melon require more frequent irrigation in summer to spring crop, while in rainy season crop, irrigation may not be necessary at all. In summer irrigate the crops at 5-7 days intervals. At the maturity stage, muskmelon irrigates at wider intervals. In Daria cultivation crops do not require irrigation, it intake of water by capillary action of roots.
For successful cultivation of muskmelon, plots are kept free from weeds. During the early stage of crops, beds, ridges, etc. need to be kept free from weeds. Herbicides are also beneficial in muskmelon crops to reduce weed growth like Simazine, Dichloremate, etc. These weedicides are used at pre-emergence.
Use of Growth regulators
Increase fruit setting
Increase fruit setting
These chemicals/plant growth regulators must be applied at the 2-true leaf stage.
Generally, fruit is ready for harvesting 110 days after sowing, depending on the variety and agro-climate conditions.
Muskmelon harvest Maturity Indices
- Change in the external colour of the fruits
- Softening of the rind
- Development of abscission layer
- Full Slip stage: – At the full maturity stage fruit self-detached from the vine due to the development of the abscission layer. And at the detection point, a clear small pit remains, this stage of harvesting of muskmelon is known as the full slip stage. At this stage shelf life of fruit is less than half slip stage. This stage is suitable for local market or home consumption.
- Half-slip stage: – harvesting of fruits 1 to 2 days before full slip stage, when at the detection point half clear pits are seen known to be as a half-slip stage. At this stage self-life of the fruit is and fruits are suitable for sale at distant markets.
- In some varieties, harvesting is done at the netting stage example Hara Madhu
The average yield is 125-150 quantal/ hac.