Budding:-The method in which bud/scion is applied to the rootstock in such a manner that both are joined to form a new plant is called budding.
vegetative parts of plants such as flowers, and fruits are formed from bud/scion and the part of the plant on which the bud is planted and which forms the root system is called Rootstock.
Normally budding should be done in spring (March – April), summer (May – June), and rainy season (July – September). At this time the flow of sap in the plants is more, which means more juice. And at this time there are frequent cell divisions in the cambium cell so that the bud sticks quickly to the rootstock.
Generally, the scion chosen for budding should be pencil thick and 1-2 years old.
Types of Budding
- T-Budding–The pencil-thickened rootstock having 1-2 years old should be selected for budding. Then make an incision-shaped English word ‘T’ at the rootstock between the center of two nodes and at a height of about 10–25 cm, due to ‘T’ shaped incision therefore called T budding. If this incision is made inverted ‘T’ shape then it is called inverted T budding. After making the incision, the bark of the incision is loosened from the back end of the budding knife called a bladder. Now, from the branch of the pencil thickness of an improved variety, a 50 – 3.50 cm long bud of boat or shield shape is removed with the help of a knife, a wooden piece is carefully removed from the back of the bud. after inserting the bud into a T-shaped incision on rootstock, the incision is tied to a 300 gauge polythene strip/ tape leaving the bud exposed. This method is best in plants with thin bark, for example – rose, pear, apple, peach, walnut, grape etc.
- Patch Budding–This method of budding is more useful in fruit trees with thick bark. For budding, a square or rectangle-shaped bud is extracted from the scion and an incision similar to the length and width of the bud is make on the rootstock. and removed bark. In this cut, paste the bud and tie it with polythene strip/ tape leaving the bud exposed. Examples – jackfruit, amla, mango, berries, etc.
- Chip Budding–Generally in plants in which sap flow is very low and the bark cannot be easily separated from wood, this method is used. In this method, the rectangular bud along with the wood is removed from the scion shoot. The bark along with the bud is removed by making a similar incision on the rootstock. Now the bud is stuck in this cut and tied with a polythene strip or tape. This method is also used in the dormant stage of the plant or to prevent Phylloxera insects in grapes. This method of budding is suitable for apple, pear, and grape in February-March.
- Ring Budding–The best method for plum, peach, and mulberry. In which the ring-shaped bud is carefully taken from the scion branch. The length of the bud should be 5-3.0 cm. The ringed bark is removed by making a cut of the same length on the upper part of the rootstock. Now the ring-shaped bud is gently fitted to the rootstock by gently sliding it down. Keep in mind that while applying the bud, there should not be any air or empty space in it, the bud should stick to the rootstock. This method does not require the bud to be tied with a polythene strip or tape.
- Modified Ring Budding–This method is similar to that of ring budding, but for convenience in this method, the bud is taken off with a vertical slit in the bud wood from the scion shoot. Such a bud can be applied in the middle without cutting the rootstock from above. After fixing the bud to the rootstock it is tied with polythene tape. On rainy days, paraffin wax is applied to the open space between the bud and the rootstock to protect the bud from rotting.
- Forkert Budding–In this method, a rectangular bud 2-3 cm long and 5 -1.0 cm wide is taken from the scion shoot. An incision of the same size is also made on the rootstock. But the cut is applied on three sides. And let the bark remain attached to the rootstock from the bottom. After sticking the bud in the cut of the rootstock, the bud is covered or wrapped with a bark attached to the bottom and tied with polythene tape. After a few days, when the bud sticks to the rootstock, then remove polythene tape and also remove the flap bark of the rootstock. The upper portion of the rootstock is removed in 2 to 3 installments. This method is used to protect the bud from drying out in areas with dry climates. Examples – mango, jackfruit, cashew nut, etc.
- Modified Forkert Budding–This method is also similar to that of the forkert budding. It is believed that this method is an improved form in which the bark of the rootstock is removed by cutting it in half and covering the lower part of the bud with the remaining bark. Then tied with polythene tape. This method does not require the removal of the rootstock bark from the bud. The growing portion of the bud is kept exposed while tying. Rest all is similar to forkert method.