Vegetable Science


Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata) is also known as ‘Patta gobhi’ in India. It is an important cole crop of the Brassicaceae family that needs a cool climate for proper growth. India (9.2MT) is the second largest producer of cabbage in the world after China (34MT). Cabbage is a rich source of vitamin C which is necessary to avoid scurvy disease. It also helps in digestion. In this chapter, you will read its cultivation in detail.

Other Name:- Patta gobi (Hindi), Band Gobhi, Bandha Kapi, Karam Kall

Botanical Name:- Brassica oleracea var capitata

Family:- Crucifereae / Brassicaceae

Chromosome No.:- 2n=18

Origin :- Mediterranean region

Edible part:- Head (Enlarged and exaggerated terminal bud)

Fruit type :- Siliqua (a bicarpillary pod)

Important Points

  • Cole Crops: -Cole word comes from “Caulis” meaning ‘stem’. Cole meaning a group of highly differentiated plants originated from a single wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea sylvestris).
  • In the world, India ranks 2nd in cabbage production.
  • In India, the total cultivated area under vegetable cabbage contributes 4 % area.
  • Aroma containing compound present in raw cabbage is Allyll isothiocyanate and in cooked cabbage Dimethyl disulphide.
  • 30% area is covered by cabbage hybrid cultivars instead of other cultivars.
  • Cabbage is a long-day plant.
  • Cabbage is a cross-pollinated crop.
  • Round-headed varieties mature earlier than the conical varieties.
  • Sporophytic self-incompatibility present in cabbage
  • The respiration rate of cabbage is low.
  • A toxic compound sinigrin present in cabbage
  • Savoy cabbage- Brassica oleracea var sabuda
  • Wild cabbage – Brassica oleracea var sylvestris
  • Hybrid varieties are developed using cytoplasmic genetic male sterility which is present in cabbage.
  • Black Leg disease more if cultivated in saline soils.
  • The temperate climate is suitable for cabbage seed production.

 Area and Production

Sr. No.



Area (000 ha)

Production (000MT)


West Bengal
















Madhya Pradesh















Source NHB 2018

Economic Importance

  • Indole-3-carbinol is an anticancer compound present.
  • Sauerkraut: – A processed product prepared from white cabbage and useful in scurvy.
  • “Sauerkraut” is a German word meaning cabbage fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in fermentation. They ferment leaf sugar and produce a distinctly sour-tasting product with a long shelf life.
  • Cabbage contains 91.9 gm moisture, 1.8gm protein, 4.6 gm carbohydrates, 0.06mg thiamine, 0.03 mg riboflavin, 2000IU Vitamin A and 124mg Vitamin C per 100g edible portion.
  • Cabbage has a cooling effect and helps in the prevention of constipation.
  • It is speeds digestion, increases appetite, and useful for diabetic patients.


1. Introduction

  • Golden Acre
  • Red Acre
  • September:- from Germany, cultivated in Nilgiri hills.
  • Glory of Enkhuizen
  • Copenhagen market:- Early variety
  • August :- Early variety
  • Red Cabbage

2. Selection

  • Pride of India:- Round and early variety
  • Pusa Ageti: – Early variety, First tropical variety suitable for high-temperature conditions.

3. Hybrid

  • Pusa Drumhead:- Black leg resistant variety
  • Pusa Mukta:- Black rot resistant variety
  • Pusa synthetic

Synthetic varieties: – When more than one inbred with high GCA is hybridized in all possible combinations and their seeds are mixed in equal amounts, it is called a synthetic variety.

  • Pusa Sambandh:- suitable for high-density planting, early maturing, synthetic variety
  • Questo
  • Shree Ganesh Gol
  • Uttam
  • Bajrang
  • Green boy:- suitable for high temperature(30-350C)
  • Green Express:- suitable for high temperature
  • Green Challenger
  • Green Cornet
  • Savarna
  • Vishesh
  • Sudha
  • Ganga
  • Kaven
  • Yamuna
  • Hari Rani
  • Meenakshi
  • Stone Head
  • Nath Laxami 401
  • Beejo Sheetal 32
  • B.S.S.-32
  • N.L. 104


Cabbage requires a cool and moist climate for its proper growth and production. In North India, it is cultivated during the winter season. Cabbage thrives well in frost as compared to cauliflower. Temperatures of 12–16° C are required at the time of seed germination. The plant growth stops when the temperature goes above 25°C.


Cabbage can be cultivated in a variety of soils. Sandy loam soil is considered best for the early crop as well and clay loam or silt loam is preferred for the main crop. The average soil pH range of 5.5-6.5. If soil is acidic then add lime before sowing.

Sowing time


Seed Sowing time

Transplanting time











Seed Rate and Seed Treatment

About 375-500 g seeds are required to raise a nursery for one hectare of land.

Before sowing seed is treated for 4-5 hours in plain water to enhance germination. Seeds are treated with Thiaram or Captan @2-3 gm/kg seeds before sowing to protect the crop from damping off in the nursery bed.


The seed is sown in a raised nursery bed of 1.2m wide. Before sowing the nursery, bed soil should be sterilized with formaldehyde. Generally, Seeds are broadcast on nursery beds. Then apply a thin layer of FYM or compost on the bed to cover the seeds. Immediately after sowing light irrigation was given to the bed with a rose cane. Line sowing is not followed due to more incidence of damping-off in this method.

Field Preparation

Land should be plough 3-4 times and make soil tilth better. And at the last ploughing add 20-25 t /ha FYM.


The seedlings are ready to transplant 4-6 weeks after sowing. Planting of cabbage is done on the flat as well as on ridges. Ridges are more economical and commercially used. Ridges are made 60 cm apart and the seedling is planted at 45 cm spacing. After transplanting crop should be lightly irrigated.

Manure and fertilizers

The cabbage is a heavy feeder of nutrients. Generally, 20-25 tonne/ha FYM should be added to soil at the time of field preparation. Medium fertile soil requires about 220 Kg N, 100 kg P, and 220 Kg K. Full doses of Phosphorus, potash and a half dose of N should be applied at the time of sowing, and a remaining dose of N is top-dressed 5-6 week after transplanting.


The cabbage requires a continuous supply of moisture throughout its entire life. The crop should be irrigated at 10-12 days intervals. When the head is beginning to develop continuously lightly irrigate the crop.

Weed Control

Weeding once done between the interval of two irrigation. Cabbage is a shallow-rooted crop so hoeing is not beneficial in increasing yield. Therefore, some herbicides are used to control weed population like a pre-emergent spray of Oxyfluorfen @ 0.25Kg /ha one day before transplanting, Nitrofen @2 kg/ha or Alachlore @ 2 Kg/ha also effective.


When the head attains full size and hard it is harvested. Generally, Early varieties are ready for harvesting in about 70-80 days and late 100-120 days from transplanting. A cabbage head is cut with a long knife or sickle. After harvesting, outer leaves are removed to give a better appearance and convenience in handling.


The yield of cabbage varies on the season, variety, and locality. The average yield of cabbage is 20 -50 tonnes/ha.

Insect pest management

  1. Cabbage and turnip aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae):- This insect is more serious during the late season of the crop when it is left for seed production. Insects suck sap from tender plant parts. Later wrinkled, downward-curling leaves, yellowing of leaves, growth of the plant is reduced, and contamination with aphid honeydew is seen on affected plants.


  • Spay the crop with Malathion or Parathion in seed production or the early stage of plant growth, if the head is ready to harvest then nicotine sulphate is used to control.
  1. Diamond Black Moth (Plutella xylostella):- This is the most damaging pest of cabbage. Larvae of the pest feed on foliar tissue excepts leaf veins due to this photosynthesis process is checked and plant growth is stopped. The dropping of leaves is also starting.


  • Grow mustard with the crop as a trap crop
  • Spray 4% Neem seed carnal oil.
  1. Cabbage head borer or stem borer (Hellula undalis):- Caterpillar bore the stem, leaves, and head. It makes cabbage unfit for consumption.


  • Spray the crop with Fenvalerate 20 EC or Cypermethrin or Deltamethrin 28 EC 250 ml.
  • Biological control using Microbracon mellus and Apanteles crocidolmiae.


Disease management

  1. Damping off (Phythium Or Rhizoctonia sp. Or Fusarium sp.):- Damping off is a nursery bed disease. In this disease collar region of the seedling starts to rot and the seedling falls on the nursery bed resulting death of the seedling.


  • Seed should be treated with thiaram or captan 3gm/kg seeds before sowing.
  • Drench the soil of the nursery bed around the seedling with captan 200 gm/100 litres of water twice.
  • Before sowing seeds should be treated with hot water (50°C) for 30 minutes.
  • Nursery bed should be sterilized with formaldehyde before sowing.
  1. Downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica):- Initial symptoms are shown on the lower surface of the leaf as purplish-brown spots. Later stage dark sunken spots are seen on the stem.


  • Follow crop rotation.
  • Kept field weed-free.
  • Before sowing seeds should be treated with hot water (50°C) for 30 minutes.
  • Seed should be treated with thiaram or captan 3gm/kg seeds before sowing.
  1. Blackleg or Black rot (Xanthomonas campestris):- The initial symptom is V-shaped yellow lesions on the edges of leaves which turn dark and brown later. Malformation of leaves, blacking of veins which are latterly dry up and die.


  • Seeds should be healthy and taken from healthy plants.
  • Before sowing seeds should be treated with hot water (50°C) for 30 minutes.
  • Seed should be treated with thiaram or captan 3gm/kg seeds before sowing.
  • Spray the crop with 1 g of streptocycline.