Floriculture and Landscaping
Landscape Uses of Trees, Shrubs, Climbers and Annuals
Trees are multivariate woody plants whose height is more than 4 meters. And a woody single stem. Branches arise 2.5 m or above. Trees are very attractive in gardens due to their beauty and abundance of blooms. They are grown for economic importance or beauty or both. The cultivation of trees for aesthetic or recreational value is known as arboriculture. Trees should be planted carefully and judiciously for height, shade, and color.
Use of trees in landscaping
- Trees form the main structure of the garden.
- Some trees produce attractive and beautiful flowers with fragrant flowers. Ex. – Gulmohar, Amaltash, Kachnar, Champa etc.
- Some trees are planted for their attractive foliage. Ex. Chinar, Gulmohar, Ficus sp.
- Some trees are planted for their strange shape or form.
- Shady trees are planted at select locations of large public gardens that provide a place for picnics and relaxation. Such trees are also planted on the sides of the roads to give shade to the route.
- Trees can also be grown to reduce pollution.
- In selecting ornamental trees, the purpose should be decided first and then the location of its planting should be finalized.
Shrubs can be defined as woody or semi-woody multivariate plants, with branches originating from the base of the plant and growing to a height of 50 cm to 4 m.
Use of shrubs in landscaping
- Shrubs are important garden plants not only because of the large number of important species and varieties but also because of the wide range of variations in plant size and shape.
- They fit very well with home gardens in cities and towns.
- Shrubs can also be used in planting with foundations in buildings.
- Flowers can be seen all year round on shrub, on one or the other. Ex. Callistemon lenceolatus, Nyctanthes arbortristis, Jasmines, Cestrum nocturnum,
- Some shrubs are also grown in the garden for beautiful leaves. Ex. Croton, Eranthemum, Acalyphas, Duranta plumieri variegata, Citrus limonia var. variegata, Nerium oleander var. variegata
- They can be used as a hedge, fencing Ex. Bougainvillea, Duranta plumieri, Murraya exotica,
- Bushes can also be used for topiary.
- They can also be grown in pots.
- Prostrate or trailing shrubs suitable for planting in the rock garden Ex. Lantana sellowiana, Juniperus,
- used in landscape for ornamental-looking berries such as Carrisa carandas, Rouwolfia canescens, Ochna squarrosa
Botanically, plants that have a special structure to climb on support are defined as climbers. Climbers are very important ornamental plants and are commonly used on walls, arches, and pergolas, but in cities, attached homes increase their usefulness with the purpose of screening the premises and maintaining privacy. Bare walls can be decorated effectively by the colorful climbers growing on them.
Use of Climbers in landscaping
- The bare walls of buildings or boundaries can be covered by beautiful climbers.
- climbers can be used for the purpose of screening to maintain privacy from adjacent homes.
- Climbers can be trained on trellis, arches, and pergolas.
- Climbers are best suited for roof gardens where vertical growth is preferred due to lack of space.
- Bougainvillea and Morning Glory can be trained along the slopes.
- The climbers can also be trained to climb the net house, lath house, etc. where shade-loving leafy plants are displayed.
Examples of some Climbers with uses
- Climbers for screening Antigonon leptopus Passiflora, Porana Ipomoea, Clerodendron splendens Thunbergia, etc.
- Annual climbers Clitoria ternata, sweet pea, morning glory, (Ipomoea rubrocaerulea)
- Heavy climbers for pergola Quisqualis indica, Petrea volubilis, Adenocalymma allicea, Allamanda cathartica etc.
- Lightweight climbers for low walls or trellisLonicera japonica, Solanum seaforthianum, Tristellatia australis, Tecoma jasminoides, Jacquemontia violacea.
- Climbers for porches Pyrostegia venusta, Petrea volubilis, Clerodendron splendens, Bougainvillea, Jasminum sp. etc.
- Climbers for pot cultureTristellatia australis, Adenocalymma allicea, Clitoria ternata, Bignonia purpurea etc.
- Flowering climbers in partial shade Passiflora, Aristolochia, Quisqualis indica, Clerodendron splendens, Jacquemontia violaceae.
- Foliage climbers Scindapsus aureus, Philodendron sp., Monstera deliciosa.
- Climbers with scented flowers Jasmines, Tracheloermum jasminoides, Honeysuckle etc.
Annual plants are those plants that complete their life cycle in a season or a year. They grow from seed and die in a year or a season. They are the most beautiful, and easily grown in different types, growths, and colors.
The annual flowers for horticulture can be selected according to the following objectives.
- Bedding purpose: Dahlia, Marigold, Phlox, Verbena, Pansy, Carnation, Petunia, Zinnia, Portulaca, Gomphrena, Gaillardia.
- Fragrant flowers: Carnations, Sweet pea
- For cut flowers: Carnation, Aster, Helichrysum, Antirrhirum
- For loose flowers: Marigold, Annual Chrysanthemum, Aster, Zinnia, Gaillardia
- For hanging basket: Daisy, Nasturtium, Verbena, Phlox, Alyseum, Portulace
- For rock garden: Nasturtium, Verbana, Phlox and Gamolepis
- For screening: Hollihock and sweet pea
- For pots: Carnation, Antirrhinum, Aster, Petunia
- For dry flowers: Helichrysum, Gomphrena