King of fruits / Bathroom fruit/ Nation fruit of India
- Botanical Name – Mangifera india
- Family – Anacardiaceae
- No – 40=2n Allo-tetraploid/Amphidiploid
- Origin – Indo-Burma
- Edible part – Mesocarp
- Fruit type – Drupe/stone
- Mango is a climacteric fruit
- Mango is an evergreen fruit plant
- Mango bears fruit Terminally on old-season growth
- Mature and ripe fruit contains 6.6 to 19% starch
- Mature fruit contain 0.7 to 0.05% acidity
- Ripe fruit contains 22-28mg/100gm ascorbic acid
- Viable pollen percentage in different varieties Chousa (94.3%) Krishnabhog (91.4%), Langra (90.8%), and Dashehari (93.2-94%)
- The receptivity of the stigma continues for about 72 hours after anthesis.
- Flower type – Penicle
- The perfect flower in Alphonso is 6 to 11% (Langra has the highest perfect flower 68.9% lowest Rumani – 0.74%).
- Sex ratio (Hermaphrodite to male flower) 2.8 to 24.2%
- Mango highly sensitive to salt
- Sporophytic self in compatibility present in mango
- The maximum area of mango is in Uttar Pradesh and production and productivity is in Madhya Pradesh.
- Harvesting time March to mid-August
- Yield – 8.0t/hac
- Mango should be stored at 8-9°C temperature
- India is the largest producer of mango
- In mango flower bud differentiation in oct-dec (but in Desheheri May-June and Sep-Oct)
- Mango malformation was first observed in 1891 in Bihar
- The mango variety Mulgoa is mono-embryonic in India and poly embryonic in Florida.
- About 39% of world mango is produced in India.
- Highest productivity in the world- Venezuela.
- North Indian varieties– Alternate Bearer, Monoembryonic, Self-incompatible.
- South Indian Varieties– Regular bearer, Polyembryonic.
- Pollinator- House fly.
- The best pollinizer variety Bombay Green has highest vitamin – C.
- Maturity indices – Alphonso – Specific gravity -1.01 to 1.02
Dashehari – Specific Gravity – 1.0
- VHT- (Vapour Heat Treatment) for fruit flies and Stone Weevil.
- Two crops or two times bearing in mango in Kanyakumari (TN).
- Burns and Prayag in 1911 at Pune started hybridization work on mango.
- Caging Technology of breeding was used in mango by Dr. R.N. Singh.
- Spongy Tissue was first observed by Cheema and Dhani in 1934.
- Black Tip was first observed in 1909 by Woodhouse.
- The sweetest variety of mango is Chausa.
- Rumani apple-shaped variety
- Seedless variety – Sindhu = Ratna X Alphonso, Stone accounts 3% of total fruit weight, stone weight 6.75gm. pulp 83% pulp to stone ratio 26:1, resulting from stenospermocarpic parthenocarpy.
- The longevity of mango seeds is 30 days (4 Weeks)
- A good variety of mango have a TSS of 200 Brix (Xavier -highest TSS- 24.80
Indian Polyembryonic rootstock – Bappakai, Chandrekaran, Goa, Olour, Kurukkan, Solan, Mulgoa, Bellary, Villiacolumban, Nileshawar Dwarf.
Introduced polyembryonic Rootstock – Apricot, Simmond, Hinggs, Pico, Sabre, Strawberry, Combodiana, Terpentine, Carabao, Saigon.
Salt-resistant rootstock– Kurukkan, Moovandan, Nekkare.
Rumani is used for dwarfing effect in Dashehari.
Olour for dwarfing effect in Langra & Himsagar.
Villicolumban for dwarfing effect in Alphonso.
- Mango grows well in tropical and subtropical climates.
- It can be grown up to an altitude of about 1400 meters above sea level.
- The optimum temperature range is 24°C to 27°C. However, it can tolerate temperatures up to 48°C during fruit development with regular irrigation, which improves fruit size, quality and maturity. Low temperature (13°C-19°C) is good for flower bud differentiation.
- Can be grown in areas with rainfall of 25 cm to 250 cm Flower bud formation is improved if high humidity, water scarcity, or the plant is in resting condition 2-3 months before flowering.
- Mango grows in all soils with good depth (180 cm) and drainage, except black cotton soil.
- The optimum pH is 5.5 to 7.0.
- Alluvial and lateritic soils are good.
- It cannot tolerate saline conditions.
Chausa, Dusehri, Gaddamar, Ottu Mangai, Mulgoba, Langra Benarsi, Badshahpasand, Surkha, Totapuri, Fajli, HusanNara, Alphonso, Amrapali, Badami, Bangalora, Banganapalli, Bombay, Bombay Green, Cheruku Rasalu, Chinna Rasalu, Pedda Rasalu, Roomani, Fajli Kalan, Fernandian, Gulabkhas, Himayath, Himsagar, Imam Pasand, Jahangir, Kalami, Kesar, Kishen Bhog, Komanga, Lalbaug, Langra, Maldah, Malgis, Mallika, Mankur (GOA), Mankurad, Moovandan, Nattuma, Neelum, Pairi, Priyor, Rajapuri, Raspuri, Ratna, Safeda, Sammar Bahisht, Suvarnarekha, Totapuri, Vanraj, Zardalu, Alampur Baneshan, Puliyan, Kuttiyattor, Ela Manga, Nannari.
- North Indian varieties – Dashehri, Lagra, Chausa, Bombay Green
- South Indian Varieties- Banglora, Neelam, Swaranrekha, Pairi, Banganpali, Mulgoa, Badami.
- East India- Himsagar, Fazli, Zardalu, Krishanbhog, Gulabkhas.
- West India –Alphaso,Pairi, Kesar, Rajapuri, Mulkurad, Jamadar.
- Alphonso: The most popular variety of India susceptible to spongy tissue. It has export quality.
- Banganpalli: A main commercial variety of A.P.
- Bombay Green: Earliest variety of North India. It is called Malda in UP and Sehroli in Delhi.
- Chausa: Sweetest variety of mango
- Dashehari: The most popular variety of North India.
- Fazli: Late maturing variety.
- Kesar: It has good processing quality.
- Langra: It has a characteristic turpentine flavour, most prone to fruit drop.
- Niranjan: off-season bearer.
- Neelum: Best combiner variety. Ideal for long transport, two crops in a year.
- Rosica: Mutant variety of mango.
- Madhulica: most precocious cultivar of mango.
- Lal Sindhuri: Powdery mildew-resistant variety of mango
- Rumani- Apple-shaped variety.
- Akshay: Selection from Dashahari
- Regular bearing varieties: Neelum, Gulabkas, Himsagar, Pairi, Totapuri.
- Off-season bearer: Niranjan, Madhulica.
- Exotic coloured cultivars: Tommy Atkins, Zilette, Haden, Sensation, Julie
- Mulgoa is the mother of all coloured cultivars of mango and is useful for making preserves.
- Mallika: Neelum X Dashehari – Regular bearer, highest Vitamin A
- Amararpali: Dashehari X Neelam, Dwarf, suitable for HDP (2.5X2.5m2)
- Ratna: Neelam X Alphonso, Regular bearer, spongy tissue free, pulp -78.62%.
- Sindhu: Ratna X Alphonso
- Arka Puneet: Alphonso X Banganpalli, spongy tissue free
- Arka Aruna: Banganpalli X Alphonso, Dwarf, spongy tissue free
- Arka Anmol: Alphonso X Janardan Pasand, spongy tissue free
- Arka Neelkiran: Alphonso X Neelum, spongy tissue free
- Manjeera: Rumani X Neelum
- Prabha Sankar: Bombay Green X Kalapady
- Pusa Surya
- Pusa Arumina: Amrapalli X Sensation (USA)
- Saisugartha: Totapuri X Kesar, regular bearer, malformation free, suitable for pulping.
- Arunika:- CISH, Lucknow, 40% smaller in plant size than her parent Amrapli, attractive red colour fruit.
- Ambika:- CISH, Lucknow
- Commercial propagation of mango is done
- Veneer Grafting
- Approach Grafting
- Soft Wood Grafting
- June to September/October is the best time for grafting. Polyembryonic seedlings are best in preparing uniform rootstock.
- Totapuri Red and Olor are dwarf rootstocks. There is no significant variation in mango on different rootstocks.
Land preparation and planting
- Proper plowing of the land should be done. Pits of 90 x 90 x 90 cm are dug at a distance of 8-10 m. Pits are filled with FYM.
- Planting is done in the rainy season. The graft union should be kept at least 6 inches above the soil at the time of planting. The plant should be supported (staking) and watered immediately after planting.
- To accommodate other cultural activities and to ensure the straight alignment of trees, the desired planting system such as a square, quincunx, or triangular system is used.
Manures and fertilizers
- Fertilizers are applied twice a year i.e. during the onset of monsoon (June-July) and a post-monsoon period (September-October).
- 10 kg cow dung manure, 2.5 kg bone meal, 1.0 kg pot sulphate for 1st-year plant and increased to 5 kg cow manure, 0.5 kg bone meal, and 0.4 kg pot sulphate per year till 10 years.
- Fruit-bearing trees are given 750 g N, 200 g P2O5 and 700 g K2O/year/tree. It is always better to apply organic fertilizers during October.
- Manure should be applied into a small trench dug at a distance of about 1.5-2 m from the trunk to the drip line.
- If there is no rain, irrigation should be done immediately.
- Irrigation should be according to soil and weather conditions.
- Fruit-bearing trees should be irrigated regularly at an interval of 10-15 days from fruit formation to ripening.
- The plant should be rested by stopping irrigation at least 2-3 months before flowering for maximum fruit bud development.
- Plants under drip can be applied twice a week with 40 liters of water per tree.
- Intercropping can be done in the pre-fruiting period to keep the weeds under control and get some additional income.
- Phalsa, papaya and pineapple or vegetables can be grown if irrigation facilities are available.
- Cover crops like jute, daincha, cowpea, guar pod, etc. can also be grown in the rainy season and plowed into the soil before the rains are over.
- The land should be plowed twice a year in June and October.
- The root zone of the trees should be kept weed free at all times.
- Hand hoeing is not recommended as it will disturb the active roots.
- Weedicides combined with heavy mulching can be very effective in controlling weeds.
- Weeds can be controlled by pre-emergence (pre-emergence) treatment with Atrazine/Oxyfluorophen (Goal) @ 800 ml/ha at 4 kg/ha and Gramaxone (Paraquat) @ 2 l/ha after emergence.
Training and Pruning
- Mangoes do not require regular pruning other than to remove dead and diseased branches.
- Young plants (2-3 years of age) should be pruned for good plant structure.
Flowering and Fruit setting
- The flower bud is formed 2-3 months before flowering.
- Flowering occurs from November–December to February–March depending on location and variety and continues for about 2–3 weeks.
- Flowers are polygamous – sex ratio can be improved by the application of NAA 200ppm at the bud stage.
Harvesting and yield in mango
The stage of harvesting is very important, which will be indicated by
(1) Starting of color development
(2) Fall of one or two fruits from the plant
(3) specific gravity 1.0 to 1.02 (more reliable)
- Mango generally takes 90-120 days from fruit formation to ripening. Harvesting is done using a pole harvester without any damage to the fruits.
- Grafted plants start bearing fruits in about 2-3 years, but commercial yield can be achieved in 8-10 years and can continue for 40-60 years.
- The average yield is 8-10 t/ha and may vary with variety and location.
Packing and Transportation
- Mangoes are generally packed in bamboo baskets using straw as a padding material.
- Wooden and cardboard boxes are also used. Individual wrapping of fruits preserves the quality of the fruits.
- 3% waxing with hot water treatment improves storage life. Depending on the variety, mangoes can be stored for about 2-7 weeks at 5-14°C and 90% relative humidity.
1. Mango malformation
- Maris was the first scientist to observe the mango malformation disease in Darbhanga (Bihar) India in 1891.
- Affected varieties – Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehri, Langra.
- The malformation is more severe in the north than in the south. It can cause a loss of about 50-60% of the total crop. Krishnabhog, Collector, Langra, and Neelam are tolerant varieties.
Two types of malformation
a) Vegetative malformation
- Vegetative malformation usually affects the branches of young plants with swollen buds and short branches with short internodes at the apex giving the plant a ‘witch’s broom’ appearance.
b) Floral Malformation
- In floral malformation, panicles are malformed, axes are malformed, axes are shortened and the rachis is thickened resulting in clusters-like inflorescence.
- Malformed panicles have larger flowers than normal flowers and are mostly male.
Causes of malformation
- Fungal (Fusarium maniliformae)
- Vector is reported to mango hopper.
- Acrological (many species of mites (Aceria mangifera, Cheletogenas ornatus, Typhaloduomus rdenanus)
- Physiological and biochemical causes (Nutritional, soil moisture, hormonal balance, inhibitors etc.)
- Application of plant growth regulators (first week of October)and phenolic compounds (NAA @ 200ppm, Ethrel, GA, Paclobutrozol, etc.)
- Use of antagonists and antimalformins: Glutahione, Ascorbic acid, Silver nitrate
- Application of nutrients: High NPK added with FeSO4, Cobalt sulphate
- Pruning of malformed parts 15-20cm below the point of attachment and then spray the plants with mixture of captan 0.2% + Akar 0.1% or Malathion 0.1%.
- Application of pesticides: Parathion, Kelthane, Kerathane.
- Covering panicles with polythene film to raise the temperature around the panicle.
2. Fruit drop
Fruit drop is natural and is very high in mango specially during mustard and pea stage (first four weeks).
Causes of Fruit drops
- Lack of pollination
- Low stigmatic receptivity
- Defective perfect flowers
- Poor pollen transfers due to insufficient pollinators, rain or high humidity, and cloudy weather.
- Lack of soil moisture
- Unfavorable climatic conditions like high temperature, wind, hail storms etc.
- High incidence of diseases like powdery mildew, anthracnose.
- Deficiency of auxin, GA3, and Cytokinins.
- Regular irrigation during the fruit setting to the development stage.
- Application of PGR like NAA at 25 ppm or 2,4-D at 10-15 ppm, 2,4,5-T at 20 ppm during pea stage.
- Spraying of urea (2%) is also beneficial.
3. Alternate Bearing / Biennial bearing
- Biennial bearing is also known as the alternate bearing. It indicates yield variation in alternate years i.e., a year of optimum or heavy fruiting is followed by a year of little or no fruiting.
- The phrases ‘on’ year and ‘off year are used to refer to the years of ‘normal’ and ‘sub-normal’ or ‘no crop’ respectively.
- Though planting of regular bearing varieties like Amrapali are suggested for getting regular fruits, most of the commercially grown varieties in North India, like Dussheri, Safedas, chousa, and Langra are alternate bearers.
- Climatic Conditions: – Unfavorable climatic conditions turn an ‘On’ year into an ‘Off’ year. Adverse climatic conditions are high temperature, very low temperature, frost, strong wind, and hailstorms.
- Age and size of branches:- Branches of any size or maturity in the ‘on’ year bear flower buds while in the ‘off’ year mature branches also fail to flower.
- C/N Ratio:- The C/N ratio plays an important role in enhancing the favorable conditions for the synthesis and action of substances responsible for flowering.
- Hormonal balance: – High levels of substances like auxins and inhibitors and low levels of substances like gibberellins were found to be important for flowering shoots.
- Proper and scientific maintenance of the orchard
- On-year thinning (NAA)
- Chemical control like spraying of Ethereal (2-chloroethane phosphonic acid), Paclobutrazol (10 g/tree), 1-2% KNO3, 6-8% calcium nitrate etc.
- Pruning: Pruning of fruitful shoots and proper opening of the top of the tree.
- Growing regular bearing varieties: Bangalore, Rumani, Neelam, and almost all hybrids.
- Very common in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, and West Bengal.
- Due to a physiological disorder, the distal end of the fruit becomes black and hard.
- Fruits ripen before time.
- Where brick kilns are situated near the mango orchards.
- Environment polluted by brick kiln smoke, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and acetylene causes this disorder.
- The distance of the mango orchard should be at least 1.6 km to the east and west and 0.8 km to the north and south from the brick kiln.
- Increase the height of the chimney from 15 to 18 meters.
- It is controlled by spraying 0.6% borax after fruit set at an interval of 10-15 days (Punjab, UP, Bihar, West Bengal).
5. Leaf Scorch
- Older mango leaves in particular appear scorching on the tips and margins.
- Affected leaves drop down and the vigor and yield of the tree are reduced.
- Excess of chloride ions which makes potash unavailable.
- Leaf scorch is common in saline soils
- Where brackish water is used for irrigation.
- Or where MOP (potassium chloride) is used for potassium.
- Use potassium sulfate fertilizer.
- Avoid planting in saline soil.
- Avoid brackish water for irrigation.
6. Spongy tissue
- Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have a more serious problem.
- During ripening, the pulp is transformed into an inedible sour yellow and spongy patch with or without air pockets, which may form small or all of the pulp in the fruit.
- Affected fruits develop a foul smell and become of low quality.
- Alphonso variety is more sensitive to this malady.
- High temperature,
- Solar radiation keeps the soil warm and the heat that is radiated by the soil in the form of convection flux.
- Exposure to sunlight after harvesting is thought to be the cause.
- Protect the mango orchard with tall shade plants on the border.
- Use Sod Culture
- The garden should be mulched with paddy straw.
- Pre-harvest dipping of fruits in a 2% solution of calcium chloride.
- Harvest fruits at the 3/4 maturity stage instead of fully ripe fruits.
- Post-harvest treatment of fruits with 500 ppm ethephon.
7. Soft Nose
- Physiological disorders caused by Ca deficiency cause cracking of the flesh towards the top of the fruit before ripening.
8. Clustering (Jhumka)
- Unfavorable weather (low temperature) during February-March causes the clustering of undeveloped fruits at the tip of the inflorescence.
- Most of the fruits are dropped due to shriveling and the abortion of the embryo.
- Mango hoppers or Jassids (Amritodus spp.)
- Both adults and nymphs suck sap from tender shoot leaves and inflorescence or panicle.
- The inflorescences dry up.
- The hoppers secrete nectar on which the leaves and inflorescences are affected by black mold.
- Spray Carbaryl (Sevin) 0.05% (2 g/Lit) or Monocrotophos 0.04% or Phosphamidon (Dimecron) 0.05% at the time of emergence of panicles and again at the pea stage.
- Mealy Bug (Drosicha mangiferea): – (Major pest of mango) It sucks the sap and the affected plant part dries up and also causes fruit to fall at an immature stage.
- Dig up the soil around the mango trunk during the hot summer and clear of weeds and other grass after the monsoon.
- Stem banding in the month of November-December with slippery bands of alkathane sheet (400 gauge) or sticky bands of grease and coaltar in the ratio of 1:2 (30-45 cm width) at 30-40 cm above the ground level.
- Spray Carbaryl (Sevin) 0.2%, Monocrotophos 0.4%.
- Fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis):-
The fruit fly larvae eat the pulp and convert it into a foul-smelling rotten semiliquid. After mating, the flies lay eggs in clusters of 150–200 under the skin of the fruit just before ripening. After 2-3 days the larvae emerge and start feeding on the pulp.
- Collect and destroy fallen fruits.
- Spray Carbaryl 0.2% + 0.1% Jaggery before oviposition.
- Traps containing 100 ml emulsion of methyl eugenol 10.1% malathion 0.1% should be hung in the mango orchard from April-June.
- Stone or nut weevil: – (Crypotorrynchus mangiferae & C. gravis):-
- It is more in South India.
- Larvae and adults feed on both the pulp and cotyledon of the fruit.
- Eggs are laid in partially developed fruits.
- Adopt phytosanitary measures in the mango orchard.
- Wash the infected bark with kerosene emulsion.
- One stem spray with Diazinon (0.05%).
- Spray Malathion 0.1% + Aldrin 0.1% at 45 days after flowering and repeat the spray thrice at 30 days intervals.
- Powdery mildew (Odium mangiferae)
- Incidence of powdery mildew during Feb-March or even early due to favorable temperature and humidity. Flowers, newly formed fruits may be completely covered with a white powdery mass.
- Spray the plant with Wettable Sulfur 0.2% or Karathane 0.1% or Bavistin 0.1% at an interval of 10 days.
- Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporoides)
- It is a serious problem in moist and high rainfall areas with temperatures from 24 to 32°C.
- The fungus causes symptoms of leaf spot, blossom blight, tip wilting, shoot blight, and fruit rot.
- Young fruits get black spots, they shrivel and fall.
- Cut and destroy dead and dry branches by burning them.
- Spray Bordeaux mixture (3:3:50) or Blitox 0.3% or Bavistin 0.1% in the month of February, April, and September.
- Affected fruits should be immersed in 51°C hot water for 15 minutes before storage.