Floriculture and Landscaping

Protected Cultivation of Rose

Important point

  • Rose is the national flower of England and Iran.
  • Rosa penduline and Rosa bourboniana are thornless species.
  • Rose seeds are acane
  • 1st rose Breeder of India was B.K Roy Choudhary developed the variety by Dr. SD Mukherjee in 1935.
  • 2nd rose breeder was B.S Bhattacharjee who has to be known as the ‘father of rose breeding’ developed variety Ramkrishnadev.
  • The ‘Rose Sherbat’ variety was developed by B.P Pal (his first variety).
  • Rosa damascena requires winter chilling for flower bud formation.
  • Compared to other parts of the rose, the bud union is more sensitive to frost (lower temperature).
  • Pulsing solution – 1-3% sugar + 100-200ppm 8HQC.
  • Thornless varieties of rose -Suchitra, Pusa Mohit, Grand Gala.
  • Most Rose varieties take 60-70 days to bloom after pruning.
  • Wintering in rose common in the Western Part of India (Sep.- Oct)
  • Hosur, TN, ranks 2nd in the world in rose growing.
  • Rose oil is the costliest oil in the world.
  • Yellow colour is extracted from Rosa foetida.
  • Rose gives a commercial yield of up to 8 years.
  • Rose petals change colour Blue (Bluing) due to the accumulation of ammonia.

 Greenhouse Type for Rose cultivation

  • Roses can be cultivated successfully in naturally ventilated polyhouses in mild/moderate climatic conditions such as Bangalore and Pune.
  • However, hot and high temperatures such as in Hyderabad and Delhi require a forced ventilation system (fan-pad type greenhouse) for rose cultivation.

Environmental requirement

  • Rose is a sun-loving plant that requires high light intensity (6000 – 8000 ft candle).
  • Optimum day and night temperature requirements are 24 -26° C and 15 – 17° C respectively.
  • Relative humidity – 75%
  • CO2 level up to 1000 ppm.

Important varieties

First Red, Lambada, Frisco, Black Magic, Yellow River, Ambassidor, Red Osiana, Golden Gate, Tunike, Vivaldi, Noblesse, Sasha, Papillon, Grand Gala (thornless), Skyline Polo, Konfetti, Ravel Lovely, Hollywood, etc.

Media and Preparation

  • Both soil and soil-less substrates (Rockwool, peat, sphagnum moss, vermiculites, perlite, leaf mould, coco peat, rice husk, etc.,)
  • pH 5.5-6.8
  • 30-40 cm deep well-drained, porous, and rich in organic matter.
  • Pasteurize with steam at 70–100°C for 30 minutes or use methyl bromide @ 25–30g / m2 or 10ml / cubic fit for 24–48 hours. Or Formalin @ 7.5-10.0 lit. / 100 m2 or Basmid (Dazomet) @ 30-40 g / m2

Bed size

  • 1–1.6 m wide,
  • 30-40 meters long and
  • 15-20cm / 30-40cm high
  • distance of 0.5-0.75 m between two beds.


  • 30–40 cm between rows,
  • 14–18 cm or 15–20 cm between plants,
  • 6–9 plants / m2, however, 7 plants / m2 is the best,


  • 6–18 months old budded plants can be planted during May – June.
  • The soil should be loose and moist but not too wet.
  • Planting can also be done with a 2-row system.
  • Plants can be planted in 6 rows in 6.40 meters.
  • The distance between plants in a row is about 15–20 cm.
  • Due to this 7 to 8 plants per square meter (depending on the farmer and farming system) are planted.

Manures and Fertilziers

  • The well-decomposed FYM should be given at the rate of 100 tonnes/ha in the bed.
  • The nutrient composition of the rose plant is 3.0% N, 0.2% P, 1.8% K, 1.0% Ca, and 0.25% Mg, based on leaf analysis.
  • Nutrients required are NPK and Mg @ 1: 0.2: 1.2: 0.3.
  • The fertigation requirement is 170ppm N, 34ppm P, 160ppm K, 120ppm Mg per irrigation.


  • Drip irrigation can be used 3-4 weeks after planting to give uniform watering.
  • Each plant should be watered by one liter/plant/day.
  • By supplying water directly to the potting mix, the plant does not get wet on its own, hence it is protected from diseases.
  • The dripper line of the irrigation system is placed on the ground between the two lines, this keeps the water temperature low in the dripper line and the dripper line is away from direct sunlight.

Crop maintenance after planting

Bending in roses

  • After planting, the shoots will develop rapidly.
  • After the flower bud is clearly visible, the flower buds are removed and all the branches are bent towards the ground. This process is known as ‘bending’.
  • Since the plants have grown about 40 cm above the ground at this time, it is possible to bend the stems to a depth (near the bud union).
  • Be careful not to break off the shoots while bending, so that the plants will be able to carry these areas of sugars to the new developing branches.
  • Hormonal changes occur in the plant, which promotes shoot development (balance cytokinin/auxin).
  • Binding in roses increases leaf area and allows the plant to do more photosynthesis and this will increase production.
  • 2 to 3 good growing branches per plant are allowed to continue growing, if more branches are formed then it is recommended to bend these branches also.
  • Primary bending: 5-6 weeks after planting to make a strong framework.
  • Secondary bending: 4-5 weeks after the first bending is done to obtain a greater number of strong branches.

Pruning in roses

Pruning refers to the removal of a certain part of the plant. Pruning consists of two operations of Thinning and Shortening of the stem.

1) Thinning: Thinning involves the removal of old, weak, dry, and diseased stems and branches from the beginning.

2) Shortening: This means shortening the remaining shoots, which aims to reduce the growth of the previous year to the desired height.

Objectives of pruning

  1. To remove unproductive growth, as new growth takes place in the rose plant.
  2. To ensure the production of a large number of strong and healthy shoots (branches).
  3. Improvement in the production of flowers with quality.
  4. Binding the bud to produce the strongest shoot (branch) by pruning.
  5. It keeps the rose bush in proper shape and size.
  6. Helping light and air reach in the middle of a rose bush.
  7. Removing long and straight stems to facilitate various horticultural works such as weeding, sterilization, and composting.
  8. Rejuvenate old plants. Older plants are cut from the base to obtain stronger branches.

Time of pruning

  • Late pruning delays flowering and also significantly reduces production.
  • The best time for pruning the rose is the period when the activity of the rose plant is the least and the plant is in a dormant state.
  • In temperate climates, this is usually done in the spring.
  • Pruning is done only once a year in a large area (Indo-Gangetic plains) in India.
  • The normal time of pruning is during October-November.
  • In some areas, pruning is done twice a year, i.e. in May and October for flowering in monsoon and winter respectively.

Principles of rose pruning

  • Each stem of the rose has alternating eyes (buds) in the opposite direction in the leaf axis (usually outside and inside).
  • The basic rule of pruning is to cut off about half a centimeter from an active bud, which is found in the direction in which the branches want to grow.
  • Since the rose bush has to be kept open from the middle.
  • Standard roses as well as floribundas have an outer growing bud cut from the top.
  • Where in climbing roses, pruning is done on the bud with more or less pointing upwards.
  • Always encourage the outer bud to keep the center open.
  • The cut above the bud should be slightly slanted.
  • While cutting, care should be taken that it should not be too high above the eye (bud) as it may cause that part to dry up.
  • On the other hand, if the cut is very close to the bud, it may die due to sap flow. So cut one inch above the bud.
  • Cleaning the pointed end is absolutely necessary as broken tissue, bark wounds, or hanging pieces will invite infection with pests and diseases.
  • All pointed ends should be treated with copper fungicide to protect against fungal attack.

Types of pruning

There are three types of pruning practiced in rose viz.

1. Light pruning

  • Cut the bud of the second or third eye just below the flowering stalk.
  • The top is removed with 2-3 buds in the standard, climbing rose.

2. Moderate pruning

  • Healthy shoots (branches) are cut back 45–60 cm from the base.
  • Commonly used in Floribundas and HT roses.

3. Hard pruning

  • Here, the growth is cut off by keeping only three or four branches of the previous year’s growth and about three or four eyes from the base.
  • For the rejuvenation of old shrubs and weak plants, the plant is cut off from the top, leaving a 10–30 cm long branch from the bud joint.


  • The young basal and auxiliary shoots developing from the axil of the leaves are removed leaving only one terminal / middle branch.
  • It is important from the point of view of the length of the floral stalk.


  • Removing unwanted buds is known as disbudding.
  • A quality flower is developed only by keeping the central bud and removing the others.
  • This is done in standard/hybrid tea roses to reduce the number of flowers.

Bud Capping

The flower buds are inserted into a nylon cap which helps to increase the size of the bud, prevents damage in transport, and maintains the microclimate in the package.


  • The harvest starts 4-5 months after planting.
  • The flower buds should be cut for greater distance transportation in the tight bud stage.
  • The length of the stem should be 40–90 cm.
  • When harvesting, first cut from the bottom of the first 5-leaf stage.
  • The length of the remaining stem determines the number of twigs (flower stems) that will grow back.
  • If too many (4-6 cm) stems are left, many shoots are formed of poor quality. Therefore it is advisable to cut it by 1 cm.
  • Flowers can be harvested in the greenhouse every two hours. Stem cuts should always be done with a healthy, clean, and sharp secature.


The yield of flowers in large hybrids, medium type, and small or spray is up to 100-150 stem, 200-225, and 250-350 stem per m 2 respectively.

Post-harvest technology

Immediately after cutting the stem should be immersed in clean water till the neck of the flower bud. Delays in watering cut flowers allow air to enter and cause vascular blockage.

  1. Pre-cooling
  • At a temperature of 4.4–7.2°C in cold storage, the flowers have to be placed immediately after harvesting to remove the field heat which enhances the quality of the flowers.
  • Pre-cooling is usually done for 6-8 hours in winter and 8-12 hours in summer.
  • Then they have to make a cold chain and send it to the market.
  1. Pulsing

Treat the cut flowers with 2-4% sucrose solution for 3-4 hours. This improves the quality of the flower by making the cut flower very hard and turgid. Also, there is less neck bending in storage.

  1. Grading
  • Flowers that are of uniform stem length and flower buds are developing, should be grouped together and kept in a separate container at the time of cutting.
  • At the time of flowering, basal leaves and thorns can be removed up to 20 cm for ease of handling.
  1. Packing
  • Graded-cut flowers should be packed in corrugated cardboard boxes.
  • The size of the boxes varies according to the quality and quantity of the roses to be packaged.
  • A box of 100cm length x 32.5cm width and 6.5cm height is enough for 80 roses of 65-70cm long stem.
  • A thin polythene sheet and very fine newspaper are laid inside the box. The moist tissue papers are stretched to the end of the box to provide a cushion for bloom.
  • Flowers are usually made of 20-20 bundles, tied with string or rubber band, and then packed in a box.
  • At the top of each bundle, the flower buds are wrapped in corrugated paper which is fastened with adhesive tape or rubber.
  • The two bundles are placed along the length of the boxes in front of each other in such a way that their flower buds are towards the edge of the box and their stalk is towards the center of the boxes and cushioning is provided at the edges.
  • The inside of the box is eventually covered with a sheet of tissue paper before inserting the box cover. Labeling is then done with all the details including variety, color, length of the stem, number/bundle of flowers, the total amount of flowers in a box and firm, etc.
  • The weight of these boxes is about 5-6 kg.

Physiological disorder

  1. Bend-neck

Neck bending is a major problem in roses during storage and transportation. The stalk of the rose bend very close to the flower bud, which reduces the price of this flower.


  • Premature harvesting: Flowering and associated tissue are not fully developed by doing premature harvesting.
  • Post-harvest stress: such as poor nutrition or lack of pre-cooling.
  • Improper storage: lack of refrigeration or storing for too long.
  • The age of the flower is reduced by exposure to ethylene
  • Inadequate water intake: Flowers wither due to inadequate intake of water.


  • Properly pre-cooled plant.
  • Harvesting is done at the right maturity stage.
  • Use a pulsing solution to turgid the flower bud.
  1. Bulhead 
  • In bullheads, the flower size increases, and the ratio of diameter to flower length is reduced, which gives the bud a flat-top appearance rather than a pointed end.
  • The temperature drops to a level of 120 or less during the early development of flowers.
  • Bullheads are caused by imbalances of gibberellin and cytokinin in the plant. The low temperature decreases the activity of gibberlin and increases cytokinin activity. It is therefore important not to treat flowers with cytokinin-containing root stimulators during the winter. Conversely, treatment with gibberlin will reduce the number of bullheads.


  • Plants should be protected from low temperatures.
  • In winter do not use cytokinin-containing root stimulants.
  1. Sleepiness

The rose flower never opens due to ethylene injury at the time of transportation and it always remains as the bud.

Pest management

  1. Aphids (Macrosiphum rosae)

They are small, black with green in colour. Both young and adult young suck the sap from twigs, buds, and flowers. Its incidence is more on the leaves and flower buds in the months of January and February. The colors of the leaves fade and affect the flower buds to lose their beauty and fall.


Spraying of 0.1% Malathion or Metacistox (0.1–0.2%) or Rogor (0.1–0.2%) should be done.

  1. Red scale (Lindigapsis rosae)

It is a very serious pest of roses that mostly attacks in August and September. The branches are covered with a reddish-brown crust under which the insects suck the sap of the plants.


These pests can be controlled by spraying malathion (0.1%) or parathion (0.25%) in April and again in October.

  1. Chaffer beetles (Onycetonia varsicolor)

The adults of these beetles appear in August-September and are damaged by cutting leaves.


It can be controlled by dimethoate (1.5 ml/liter) or monocrotophos (1 ml / l).

Disease Management

  1. Dieback (Diplodia rosarum)

It is a very serious disease of rose and appears after pruning. The cut twigs begin to dry from top to bottom and darken. The stem turns black and dies.


Use of more manures and fertilizers, excessive irrigation and poor drainage facilities, less light penetration into the plant.


  • For its effective control, the infected portion should be removed and burnt and the cut ends should be painted with Chaubattia paste (4 parts copper carbonate + 4 parts red lead + 5 parts linseed oil) or Bordeaux paste,
  • Use of appropriate amount of fertilizer
  • Proper drainage facility
  • Spraying of copper oxychloride (50%) at 3 g/Litre should be done.
  1. Black spot (Diplocarpon rosae)

The disease appears to rose during the humid months. A distinctive circular black spot (smaller than 1 cm) with fringed edges appears on either side of the leaf; Leaves become yellowish (chlorotic) and fall prematurely.


Carbendazim (1 g / liter of water) or captan (0.2%) fungicide should be sprayed at fortnightly intervals to control it.

  1. Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae)

It is a serious disease that occurs when the days are hot and the nights are cool. The young growing branches and leaves are covered with white powder. The affected leaves turn purple and the flower buds fail to open.


Use 80% sulfur dust or spray 0.1% Kerathane fungicides at fortnightly intervals.