Vegetable Science


Other name – Gazar, Gajor

Botanical name:-Daucus carota

Family:- Umbelliferae (Apiaceae)

Origin:- Central Asia (Afghanistan)

Chromosome number:- 2n = 18

Important Points

  • Edible part – Root
  • Fruit Type- Schizocarp
  • Inflorescence type – Umbel
  • Carrots are a rich source of vitamin A (carotene)
  • Orange varieties are rich in carotene, a precursor to vitamin A, and also contain appreciable amounts of thiamine and riboflavin.
  • Carotenoids cause the yellow color of carrots.
  • The red and black color is due to anthocyanins.
  • Male sterility is present in carrots.
  • Carrots are cross-pollinated and bees and houseflies are the main pollinators.
  • The isolation distance is kept at 800 m for foundation seed and 400 m for certified seed.
  • Carrots contain malic acid.
  • Carrot is a long-day plant.
  • Carrot is a biennial crop based on seed production.
  • Protoandry is present in carrots.
  • Carrot is a C3 plant according to photosynthesis.
  • A temperature of 15-22° C is required for root formation and color development.
  • Carrots are grown all over India and are used for human consumption as well as for fodder and especially for food. It is eaten raw and cooked into curries, used in making soups and pickles.
  • Black carrots are used to make a drink called kanji, which is helpful in increasing appetite.
  • In North India, carrot halwa is specially prepared from red carrots.
  • Carrot seed oil is used as a flavoring substitute for wine.
  • It enhances the quality of urine and helps to eliminate uric acid.
  • Carrot seeds are aromatic, stimulating, and carminative.

Nutritive value (per 100 g of edible part)

Moisture- 82.2 %, Iron – 0.7 mg, Protein – 1.1g, Sodium- 35.6mg, Fat- 0.2g, Potassium – 108mg, Mineral- 0.6g, Vitamin-A -11000 IU, Fibre- 1.2g      Riboflavin -0.05mg, Carbohydrate- 9.7g, Nicotinic acid- 0.6mg, Energy- 42kcal, Vitamin-C-8mg, Calcium- 37mg, Thiamine – 0.06mg, Oxalic acid- 5mg, Sulphur- 27mg, Phosphorus -30mg, Copper- 0.13mg.


There are two groups.

  1. Asian Type
  2. European type

Tropical and sub-tropical climates are suitable for the Asian type. The European type is suitable for the temperate zone. The Asian type has more water-soluble red anthocyanin pigment and less water-soluble lycopene pigment. Vitamin A is also low.

Asiatic or Tropical

European or Temperate

Produce seeds in plains.

Produces seeds in hills.

The Asiatic type has the root ends conical

root ends are blunt.

Rich in carotene.

Rich in lycopene.

Less Vitamin A

More Vitamin A

The roots are red with more anthocyanins

They produce orange-coloured roots

produce large core heavy tops

the core is comparatively less and softer.

More juicy

less juicy

Cores are less coloured

cores are self-coloured

Produce more core

less core

Early maturing and have high sugar content

late maturing

They are tropical and subtropical (annual)

temperate (biennial)

No chilling requirement for seed production

chilling requirement is a must for seed


Pusa Yamdagini, Jeno, Imperator, Chantaney, Danvers, Early Nantes, Nantes, Nantes Half Long, Ooty, Solan Rachna.

Pusa Kesar, Pusa Meghali, Sel-333, No. 29, Hisar Gairic, Pusa Rudhira, Pusa Ashita.


Imperator- Nantes X Chantenay

Pusa Kesar – Local Red X Nantes Half Long

Pusa Meghali – Pusa Kesar X Nantes

Pusa Yamdagni – EC-9981 X Nantes


Carrot is a cool season crop. Some tropical types can tolerate very high temperatures. Color development and root development are affected by temperature. At a temperature of 10 to 15° C, carrots develop long roots (but develop poor color). At the same, at the temperature of 23.9 to 24.4° C, its small roots are formed. The optimum temperature for better growth is 18.3 to 20.9° C.

Seed germination requires a temperature of 7.2 to 23.9° C.

Carotene content decreases at temperatures below 15.6° C and above 21.1° C, so carrots grown at 15 to 20° C develop good color. Carrot production requires poor light. Tropical types produce roots even at temperatures as high as 25° C.


It requires deep sandy loam soil with good drainage. It is especially good for early crops. Heavy soil inhibits the growth of roots and causes forked lateral roots. It produces abnormal or forked roots even when it is grown in heavy clay or black soil during the rainy season. Carrots do not grow in highly acidic soils. Maximum yield can be achieved at a pH of 6.5

Seed Rate and Sowing

5 to 6 kg per hectare and this can be in 6 to 9 kg per hectare for Premnath variety. The sowing time is September (best).

It can be sown in the months of June-July, August, September, and January-February in the hills. Tropical type from September to October. Temperate types are sown from October onwards. Seeds are sown in flat land or on ridges about 1.5 cm deep.

Method of sowing

The seeds are sown directly on the ridges, furrows, or flatbed in the field. ridges and furrows are made during the rainy season. In the Rabi season, when the soil becomes loose, sowing is done on flatbeds. If the soil is hard then it can be sown on the ridge and furrow. The seeds are thin and light and mixed with soil or broken rice in a ratio of 1:1 or 10:1. Seeds are sown at a depth of 1 to 5 cm at a distance of 30 cm between rows (5 cm within rows). Seeds germinate within 5 to 10 days of sowing under good moisture conditions. Thinning is done after 8 to 10 days of germination. In thinning, a 5 to 10 cm distance is done from plant to plant.


Carrots need a heavy dose. The potassium requirement is high. Apply FYM @ 30 t/ha depending on soil fertility and 40 to 60 kg of Nitrogen, 25 to 50 kg of Phosphorous, and 90 to 110 kg of Potassium per hectare is recommended. Excess nitrogen reduces root quality, and reduces the amount of sugar, dry matter, carotene, and vitamin C. Fresh cow dung should not be given as it may lead to forking in the roots.


The first irrigation should be given immediately after sowing the seeds. This is followed by four to six days after sowing. Apart from this, irrigate the carrot at an interval of 6 to 10 days.

Earthing Up

It should be done 60 to 70 days after sowing to help in the development of roots, the roots are covered with soil to prevent loss of color of the tops. Turning the tops green and toxic from exposure to sunlight.


The field is covered with soybean stubble or rye mulch as compared to conventional tillage.

Harvesting (Digging)

Carrots are harvested when they are partially developed. They are kept in the soil until they reach the full maturity stage, they should not be kept later otherwise the cores become puffy and become hard and unfit for consumption.

The roots are dug with a spade or Kudali when the soil is sufficiently moist. Light irrigation should be given before harvesting so that the roots can be easily pulled off without damage to the leaves by holding them.

In Asian varieties, the roots are dug when they reach a marketable stage 2.5 to 5 cm in diameter. The upper end is cut off after the roots have been dug up and washed before sending them to market.


  • Tropical types give about 20 to 30 tonnes per hectare.
  • Temperate type can give 10 to 15 tonnes per hectare

Fungal Diseases

  1. Leaf blight or Alternaria blight : (Alternaria radicina and Alternaria dauci)
  • It is mainly visible in winter.
  • Small dark brown to black spots with yellow edges first appear along the margins of the leaves.
  • The number of spots gradually increases and the interveinal tissue dies.
  • Blackening and shrinkage increase so rapidly in moist weather that the entire field looks like frost injury.
  • The disease is seed-borne.

Control measures

  • Crop rotation should be adopted.
  • Seed treatment with Captan or Thiram @ 3 g/kg before sowing will be beneficial.
  • Later spray Mancozeb (0.25%) at an interval of 7-10 days.
  1. Leaf spot or Cercospora blight : (Cercospora carotae)
    • Symptoms first appear as long lesions along the edge of the leaf segment, resulting in lateral wavy (curing).
    • The spots are light brown in the dry weather while the spots are dark in color in the wet weather.

Control measures

  • Sowing should be done after immersing the seed in 0.1 percent carbendazim solution for 5 minutes.
  • Crop rotation and sanitation are essential.
  • Spray copper fungicide or Zineb 0.25-0.3 percent whenever the disease is observed.
  1. Powdery mildew : (Erysiphe spp.)
    • It first appears on leaves, but later spreads to flowers, stems, and fruits.
    • Symptoms first appear as discolored and small checkers, which form blotchy areas of the white powder of varying sizes.

Control measures

  • Before symptoms appear, spray Dinocap (0.05%) or Wettable Sulfur (0.2%) at an interval of 10-15 days.
  • Sulfur dust is the most effective. It can also be given after disease manifestations as this fungicide is both eradicating and protective.

Viral Diseases

Carrot Yellows

  • The disease is spread by six spotted leafhoppers (Macrosteles divisus).
  • Symptoms first appear on the leaves, which sometimes turn yellow and the veins become clear.
  • The dormant buds in the crown develop chlorotic (without chlorophyll), taking the form of a ‘witch’s broom’ at the top.
  • Older leaves turn red, twist, and may eventually break.

Control measures

  • Spray insecticides such as dimethoate (0.05%) or carbaryl (0.15%) to control hoppers.

Root Diseases

1. Watery soft rot: (Sclerotinia sclertiorum)

Infected roots become soft and watery and form white mycelium with black sclerotia.

2. Gray mold rot: (Botrytis cinerea)

Gray mold appears mostly in moist environments. The affected tissues are watery and light brown in color and later become spongy.

3. Black rot: (Alternaria radicina)

  • It is a widely spread disease.
  • Foliar symptoms are similar to those of Alternaria blight.
  • On the roots, dark sunken areas may develop from irregular to circular appearance.

Measures to control root diseases:

  • Store roots at 0-2oC to keep decay to a minimum in storage.

Bacterial Diseases

Bacterial soft rot : (Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora)

  • The infected tissue softens and becomes watery or slimy and as the rot progresses the watery extrusion becomes more evident.
  • A foul odour from decayed roots distinguishes it from the soft rot.

Control measures

  • Careful handling of roots during harvesting, grading, or transit so that all bruises on root surface can be avoided.

Pest Control

1. Carrot Rust Fly

  • The larva burrows into the roots, often causing them to rot, and the leaves become rusty (red) or dry.

Control measures

  • At the time of soil preparation, mix Folidol M (2%) or Malathion dust (5%) @ 20-25 kg/ha in the soil.

2. Aphids

  • They are small in size, both adults and nymphs suck the sap from the leaves and tender parts, which weakens the plant and twists the leaves.

Control measures

  • For root crops, spray Malathion (0.05%) at 15-day intervals. Spray the seed crop with Oxy-demeton methyl (0.025%).

3. Mustard sawfly: (Athalia promixa)

  • Affects the seed crop also adversely. Adults eat pods and leaves that have visible holes.

Control measures

  • At the time of soil preparation, mix Folidol M (2%) or Malathion dust (5%) @ 20-25 kg/ha in the soil.

Physiological Disorders

  1. Root splitting: Cracking or splitting carrot roots is a big problem.

Possible reasons

  • Greater distance because bigger roots split more
  • Dry weather followed by moist weather is favorable for root splitting.
  • This disorder increases when the amount of N in the soil increases.
  • Early varieties tend to split more than late varieties.


  • Maintain optimum moisture in the field
  • Harvest the crop at the right mature stage.
  • Grow resistant varieties
  • Sow seeds at a lesser distance
  • Give the recommended amount of nitrogen
  1. Cavity Spot
  • It appears as a cavity in the cortex. In most cases, the subtending epidermis collapses to form a pit lesion.

Possible reasons

  • Calcium deficiency is associated with decreased accumulation of Ca due to increased accumulation of K.


  • Apply calcium-rich fertilizers to the crop.
  • Harvest at an optimum maturity of the roots.
  1. Forking

A common disorder in carrots and radishes is characterized by overgrowth of the secondary roots.

Possible reasons:

  • This is due to excessive moisture during root development. It also occurs in heavy soils due to the density of the soil.


  • Avoid excessive moisture
  • Avoid heavy soil for root production