Fruit Science

Pomegranate Cultivation

B.N. – Punica granatum

Family – Punicaceae

Origin – Iran

Ch. No. – 2n=18 (Basic no. 9 or 8)

Inflorescence – Hypanthodium

Fruit type – Balausta

Edible part – Juicy seed coat

Important Point

  • Daru – Wild type
  • Maximum area and production Maharashtra (Area 147.91 thousand hectares and production 1789 thousand metric tons).
  • Highest productivity – Tamil Nadu.
  • According to the NHB database 2018, the area and production of pomegranates are 234 thousand hectares and 2845 thousand metric tonnes respectively.
  • It is a non-climacteric fruit tree.
  • Protogyny is found in pomegranate flowers.
  • Heterostyled (produce pin flower).
  • Wind (Anemophilous) Pollinated.
  • Mix-bearing habit.
  • The problem of cracking of fruits is more during the Mrig Bahar season.
  • Mostly Multistem training system is used in India.
  • Highly drought tolerant.
  • Pomegranate juice is useful for leprosy patients.
  • Summer crop is in maximum demand.
  • Covering fruits with butter paper bags protects the fruit from damage by Anar butterfly (Virachola Isocrates).
  • July – August is the ideal time for planting in tropical regions.
  • NRC – Pomegranate – Solapur (MH)


  • Paper shelled
  • Muskati Red
  • Spanish Ruby
  • Alandi
  • Karadi
  • Muskat
  • Madhugiri
  • Bassein Seedless
  • Dholka
  • Jalore seedless
  • Chawla
  • Nabha
  • Country large red.
  • Ganesh (GB1) – Selection from Alandi, popular in MH, Developed by Dr. G.S. Cheema
  • G-137, G-107, – Clonal selection from Ganesh.
  • P26, P-16, P-13 – Seedling selection from muskat
  • Arakta


  • Mridula – Ganesh x Gul – e -Shah red
  • Jyoti – Bassein seedless x Dholka
  • Ruby – Ganesh x Kabul x Yercard
  • Amlidana – Ganesh x Nanha, Dwaff, TSS 12.60 Brix (IIHR)

Soft-seeded var. – Jyothi, Ganesh, Bassein seedless, Paper shell.

Hard seeded – Khandhari, Alandi


  • It is a tropical plant and grows up to an altitude of 2000 m.
  • A hot and dry climate enhances the quality of fruits.


  • Loamy or alluvial soil is best
  • Can also be cultivated in slightly alkaline and lime-rich soil.


  • Pomegranate is commercially propagated by air layering and hardwood cutting.
  • Cutting is prepared in North India in spring and in South India in monsoon.
  • Air layering is done during the rainy season.


  • Before the onset of monsoon, pits of 60 to 75 cm are dug at a distance of 4X4m, 3X2.5, or 4X2m.
  • The best time for sowing pomegranates is the monsoon season

Manure and fertilizers

  • FYM – 20 kg/plant
  • 240:160:60 grams/plant N:P: K
  • Use fertilizers for
    • Ambe Bahar – December-January
    • Mrig Bahar – May-June
    • Hastha Bahar – October-November.


  • Give light and regular irrigation during fruiting time.
  • Irrigation is required at an interval of 10-12 days till the onset of monsoon.
  • Pomegranate can tolerate salt water (500-1000 ppm).

Interculture and Intercropping

  • Shallow cultivation should be done to reduce weeds.
  • During the first 4 to 5 years, do intercropping with vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, peas, beans, etc.

Pruning and Pruning

  1. Multi-stem system

In this case, 3-4 stems are left on each plant and the remaining branches are removed, resulting in the growth of the plant in a bushy form.

  1. Single-stem system
  • All lateral shoots are removed and only one stem is left. The main stem is pinched above a height of about one meter resulting in branching. Only 4-5 branches well distributed on all sides are allowed to grow at a distance of about 60-70 cm from the ground level.
  • Water sprouts, weak crotch, dead twigs, and old spurs are pruned.

Flowering and fruiting

A mature pomegranate plant has a tendency to flower and bear fruit throughout the year.

Bahar regulation/treatment – ​​This is done by withholding water supply 60 days before normal flowering, exposure of the root, and also using chemicals.

  • Mrig Bahar – June-July (flowers)
  • Ambe Bahar – February – March (flowers)
  • Hasta Bahar – September – October (flowers)


  • Fruits are ready for harvesting 5 to 7 months after flowering.
  • When ripe fruits turn slightly yellow and then pink to red.
  • A metallic sound is produced when the fruit is tapped and a ‘crunch’ sound is heard when pressed.


  • 80-120 fruit/plant or 16-20 kg/plant


  1. Pomegranate butterfly or Anar fruit fly (Virachola isocrates)
  • The female lays eggs on a cluster of flowers and small fruits. Hatching caterpillars bore inside the developing fruit and are eaten from the inside. Affected fruits fall down.


  • Collect and destroy all affected fruits.
  • Spray Metacid or Carbaryl 0.2% or Phosphomidon 0.03%
  1. Bark Eating caterpillar (Inderbela tetraonis)
  • The pest bore into the bark of the pomegranate tree and fed inside.


  • Avoid overcrowding of trees by removing unwanted twigs.
  • Inject kerosene oil or petrol and plug the hole with cotton wool.


  1. Fruit rot (Phomopsis sp.)
  • Flowers in affected plants do not bear fruit and young fruits may drop. Symptoms appear with yellow or black spots all over the fruit.


  • Remove and burn all affected twigs, fruits.
  • Spray with Dithane Z-78 0.2%
  1. Leaf spot (Xanthomonas punicae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)
  • Xanthomonas punica causes irregular water-soaked spots on leaves. They are light brown to dark brown in appearance, with no spots on twigs, branches, or fruits.


  • Collect and destroy fallen leaves and fruits.
  • Spraying of 0.2% Dithane M-45 or Captan at 15 days intervals.

Physiological Disorder

Fruit Cracking

The cracked fruits are also liable to be invaded by certain fungi and bacteria.


  • Boron deficiency in young plants
  • Moisture stress conditions created due to irregular irrigation or irregular rains
  • Sudden fluctuations in day and night temperatures.


  • Spray 0.1% Borax
  • The regular supply of soil moisture through light irrigation.
  • Plant windbreak around the pomegranate orchard.
  • Use resistant varieties.