Vegetable Science

Types of Vegetable Garden

Types of Vegetable Garden

Vegetable gardening can broadly be classified into the following types on the basis of production and utilization of the products. The popular and commonly used classification of types of vegetable gardens was suggested by Thompson and Kelly.

I. Home or Kitchen garden/Nutrition garden:

Vegetables are grown in areas surrounding the house for fresh supply to the kitchen for family consumption. The main purpose of kitchen or home gardens is to provide the family’s daily requirement with fresh vegetables rich in nutrients and energy. There is to be more or less a continuous supply of a variety of vegetables throughout the year according to the season. It also provides recreation and exercise, especially for ladies. In addition to the above, home garden can reduce family expenditure and improve the standard of living.

Table 1. The cropping pattern of the kitchen/nutrition garden

Plot No.

Vegetables and period

Vegetables and period

Vegetables and period


Cabbage (October-February)

Cowpea (March- June)

Fenugreek (August- September)


Okra (September–December)

French bean (January -March)

Carrot (June –July)


Chilli (June-May)

Garlic (June-December)

Radish (June-July)


Peas (September –November)

Tomato (December –March)

Okra (April –June)


Carrot (September –November)

French bean (December -April)

Cucumber (May –July)


Capsicum (September –December)

French bean (January -April)

Cucumber (May-August)


Beetroot (September –December)

Cabbage (December –March)

Cluster bean (April –July)


Potato (November- February)

Amaranthus (November –April)

Cowpea (May –April)


Sweet potato (August –September)

Brinjal (January -February)

Carrot (June –July)


Palak (September –November)

Capsicum (January – February)

Radish (June –August)

Types of the kitchen garden

a) Home garden having fruits and vegetables

b) Home garden having only vegetables

Kitchen gardens vary according to the size of the residential plot.

Eg: 1) Large size kitchen garden

       2) Medium size kitchen garden

       3) Small size kitchen garden

       4) Terrace garden: In cities/towns where only a little space is available, one can grow vegetables in pots, drums, and other containers placed on a terrace or roof.


1) Kitchen garden is the best means of recreation and exercise

2) Kitchen garden is lowering the vegetable bill: In the kitchen garden, there is no transportation charge and middlemen’s share which greatly add to the price paid by the consumers in purchasing vegetables from the market.

3) It secures enough vegetables within the means of all classes at a very cheap rate.

4) The cost of raising the vegetables in the kitchen garden through one’s own labour is far less than what a family spends on vegetables in the market.

5) Vegetables grown in the kitchen garden are nutritious, fresh and are not liable to infection with germs occurring in unsanitary markets.

6) Better utilization of available surrounding land, kitchen waste, and kitchen water.

Planning and management:


Land size depends on the number of persons to be supplied with vegetables. An area of 250 sq.m can supply vegetables for a family of five members.


As far as possible the kitchen garden should be located near the house, especially in the back of the kitchen room. The soil should be preferably loam or sandy loam, well-drained with rich in organic matter and nutrients.

Arrangement of crops:

Perennials and fruit crops should be on one side or at one end of the garden, in such a way that they should not obstruct field preparation and intercultivation. Cucurbitaceous and other vine vegetables should be grown near the fence. Quick-growing plants should be planted in continuous rows as per our plan of supply of vegetables throughout the year.


FYM or compost is best suited for kitchen garden. For the best growth and development of crops chemical fertilizers are also used in addition to kitchen waste.


As and when required, take up weeding, staking, thinning, earthing up, etc., for good growth and development of vegetable crops.


Plants should be irrigated regularly

Control of pests and diseases:

 Plant protection measures based on the need are taken up at appropriate intervals to control respective pests/diseases.


Generally, harvesting is done at the right stage in order to get quality products according to requirements.


II. Commercial vegetable gardening:

The vegetables are grown on a large scale for sale in the market. This is further divided into the following types.

i) Market gardening

ii) Truck gardening

iii) Vegetable forcing

iv)Vegetable growing for processing

  • Canning
  • Freezing
  • Dehydration
  • Pickling and fermentation
  • Vegetable seed production

v) Vegetable seed production garden

 i) Market gardening

The main objective of market gardening is to produce vegetables for the local market. At present due to the development of transport facilities, growers are sending their produce even to distant markets where prices are more attractive and profitable. Now vegetables are brought to the mandies from distant villages by trucks. Timely and proper irrigation facilities, good seeds, enough nutrition, abundant labour supply, and easy transportation facilities are essential for market gardening.

In the places where market gardening is practiced, the land value is very high. So, it becomes necessary to secure large returns per acre to realize some profit on the investment. For market gardening, crops like peas, cauliflower, cucumber, tomato, chilies, onion, etc., are grown.

ii) Truck gardening

It is the method of growing special vegetable crops in relatively larger quantities for distant markets by employing extensive methods. In this method of gardening, in general, a more extensive and less intensive method of cultivation than market gardening is followed. The word ‘Truck’ has no relationship with a motor truck but is derived from the French word ‘troquer’ meaning ‘to barter’.

In recent years the development of national highways and efficient motor truck facilities have improved this gardening considerably. The main feature of the truck garden is given below.

a) Such farms are located far away from the centre of consumption preferably by the side of rail routes or metallic roads.

b) Price of land and labour is comparatively lower

c) Only a few crops of semi-perishable nature are grown in a large area. Eg: Onion, Green chilies.

d) Cost of transportation is high.

e) Mechanization is followed partly or wholly.

f) The cost of cultivation is less.

iii) Vegetable forcing

It is the method of growing vegetables out of their normal season in net houses, greenhouses, glass houses, and under other artificial growing conditions. In Indian conditions, vegetable forcing is not possible because the consumers cannot afford the prices of such vegetables.

The following are the characteristics of this type of farming.

a) Cost of production is higher than other method of vegetable production.

b) Various structures viz., greenhouse, cold frames, etc are required for forcing vegetables.

c) The cultivation is most intensive.

d) It requires special technical knowledge.

e) Environment is controlled artificially.

f) It is a sort of specialized demand-oriented program. Few vegetable crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, peas, asparagus, etc are grown in this type of farming.

iv) Vegetable growing for processing

The main objective of this type of gardening is to produce vegetables for supply to processing factories. These gardens are situated around the factories and grow the kind of varieties required by the factories. This type of garden in India is very limited due to the lack of processing factories. But, the prospects of future development are quite bright as the processing industries are growing up fast.

The main features of this type of garden are given below.

a) Cultivation is less intensive with a low cost of production

b) Market is assured.

c) Vegetables are grown on a contract basis.

d) Specific kinds of varieties of vegetables are cultivated.

Suitable crops for various methods of preservation

i) Canning: Tomatoes, Peas, Beans, Okra, Pointed gourd, Sweet corn, Asparagus

ii) Freezing: Peas, Sweet corn, Lima beans, Asparagus, Cauliflower, Spinach.

iii) Dehydration: Onion, Potato, Cauliflower, Peas, Cauliflower, etc.,

iv) Pickling and fermentation: Turnip, Cucumbers, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Carrot, Chilli, and Radish.

v) Vegetable seed production garden

The main objective of this type of gardening is to produce quality seeds on a large scale under the inspection of an organization. Climate, soil, disease-free conditions are factors influencing the location of seed-growing areas. The owner of the garden should have a thorough knowledge of the crop, its growth habit, mode of pollination, isolation distance required and time of rouging, etc. Knowledge about curing, threshing, cleaning, grading, packing, and storage is also essential. Nucleus/ breeder’s seed is produced by the breeder. Foundation seed is multiplied at research stations or seed corporation farms. The certified seeds are multiplied by the farmers under the inspection of the seed certification agency. This is an expanding industry in India and also profitable to the growers.

The following are the main characteristics of this type of gardening.

i) Vegetables are produced mainly for seeds under the strict supervision of specialists.

ii) Vegetables are produced on a contract basis in suitable climatic conditions.

iii) Practices such as isolation, frequent rouging of off types is essential to maintain the purity of the seed.

iv) Highly skilled labour is employed.

v) High investment for control of pests and diseases.

vi) Floating garden

In this type of gardening the vegetables are grown in water on a floating base like a boat. These floating gardens can be seen in Dal Lake of Kashmir valley. In such areas where land is submerged in water, this type of gardening can be followed. A floating base is made from the roots of typha grass or any other similar type of material. The floating base is kept in the water and seedlings are transplanted on leaf compost made out of the local vegetation growing in the area. According to the need of the crop, intercultural operations can be done by sitting in boats. Most of the summer season vegetables are supplied from Dal Lake to Srinagar.