Bengal quince / Indian quince / Golden Apple
B.N. – Aegle marmelos
Family – Rutaceae
Origin – India
Ch. No. – 18
Fruit type – Amphisarca
Edible Part – Succulent placenta
- Raw or half-ripe fruit contains 31.3% – 31.8% carbohydrate, 1.8% protein, and 2.9% fiber.
- The best source of Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin).
- Marmelosin – the active ingredient present in Bael, extracted from the bark.
- Leaves are used for offering to ‘Lord Shiva’
- It is a sacred tree of Hindus.
- Ripe green fruits are ideal for harvesting.
- It can tolerate sodicity up to 30ESP and salinity up to 9EC.
- Ripe fruits are used to make beverages.
- Ripe green or unripe fruits are best suited for making preserves.
- 90C temperature and 90% relative humidity are suitable for storage.
- Cultivated in the eastern part of the Gangetic plains, UP, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, etc.
- Kagzi Gonda
- Kagzi Etawah
- Kagzi Banarasi
- Narendra Bael – 5
- Narendra Bael – 9
- NB- 16
- NB- 7
- Deoria large
- Pant Aparna
- Pant Sujata
- Pant Shivani
- Pant Urvashi
- Goma Yashi
- Thar Neelkanth
- Subtropical trees can also grow in the tropics.
- It can be grown to a height of 1200 m.
- It withstands temperatures as low as – 80C and high as 480C
- Is drought resistant.
- Well-drained, humus-rich loamy soil with a pH of 5.5 to 7.5.
- Bael is a very hardy tree and grows in all types of soil.
- Bael is commercially propagated by patch budding and seed.
- The best time for patch budding is June to July.
- Planting is done from June to July at the beginning of the rainy season.
- Planting distance 8x8m or 10x10m. is kept.
- Pits of size 60-75 cm3 are dug.
Manures and Fertilizers
- Practically there is no manure and fertilizer given to Bael.
- The application of manure definitely helps in flowering and fruiting.
- Apply 30 kg FYM per year at the onset of monsoon.
- Also, 500 grams of nitrogen give in two splits of 250 grams each in February and again in June.
- Irrigation is done from time to time in the first year of planting.
- Irrigation once or twice after the fruit set helps in better fruit retention, size, and quality.
Training & Pruning
- New plants require staking, initially, for uprightness.
- Lateral branches are allowed to grow above a height of one meter above the ground.
- Zigzag or criss-cross branches should be removed.
- Shallow hoeing at the end of the monsoon will keep weeds under control.
Flowering and Fruiting
- Seeded plants bear fruit at the age of 7-8 years, while budded plants start bearing fruit in 4-5 years.
- It starts flowering in May and gives fruit in late May to June.
- It takes about 10 months for the fruits to mature.
- Bael fruits are climacteric and, therefore, should be harvested at full maturity.
- Delay in harvesting leads to the cracking of fully ripe fruits on the trees.
- Fruits ripen in April and May in North India.
100-150 small fruits or 50-75 fruits (large)
Insect and Diseases
- No serious pests or diseases are found in the bael.
- Canker (Xanthomonas bile)
- On the affected part of the leaves, twigs, thorns, and fruits appear as a clear circle on the affected area.
- The affected part should be removed and destroyed.
- Spray 1% Bordeaux mixture or streptomycin sulfate (200 ppm).